patent Roll 8 Edward IV

1
6 Mar. 1468
Dublin

GRANT to William Denny clk and James Acton jointly of the office of chief clerk of the chief place in Ire. and clerk of the crown in the common pleas and keeper of the rolls [etc.] of common pleas and keeper of all writs and records of the office; to be held by them or their deputies in survivorship, taking annually 100s out of the issues and various debts of co. Meath by the hand of the sheriff there, with all other customary fees.

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
C: 

NAI, RC 8/41, pp 223–4.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.
2
11 Apr. 1468
Trim

GRANT, for life, to James s. of Edmund fitz Richard Butler the lordship of Callan and the Eraght of the same; also the prise of wines in the city of Waterford.1

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
Authorized: 
By bill of the deputy of the p.s. and by authority of parliament of the said date.
O: 

NLI, D 1811.

C: 

COD, iii, §237.

Footnotes: 

1 This letter is misattributed to 11 Edw. IV in COD, iii, §237.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
3
12 Jul. 1468
Drogheda

GRANT, for 40s paid in the hanaper, and in consideration of the expenses of the mayor, sheriffs and commonalty of the town of Drogheda in the maintenance, repair and fortification of the walls, towers and pavements and the bridge and quay and the defence of the town and parts of the marches of cos. Meath and Louth against the hostile Irish, and especially in resisting John Orailby, captain of his nation, in his raid into co. Louth and killing him and 300 of his accomplices, and for their good services in wars in Ire. in the company of the K.'s kinsman John, e. Worcester, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire., and at the request of the commons of Ire. in parliament held at Dublin on Friday after St Nicholas last [11 Dec. 1467] and thence adjourned to Drogheda, that William Davy, then mayor, and his successors, shall have a sword borne before them, as does the mayor of the city of London, and grant to the mayor, sheriffs and commonalty of £20 p.a. from the issues of the fee-farm of the town.

Witnesses:
John [Bole], abp Armagh, primate of Ire.;
William [Sherwood], bp Meath;
Richard [Lang], bp Kildare;
Robert Preston kt, Lord Gormanston;
Richard Nugent kt, baron of Delvin;
Robert St Laurence kt, Lord Howth;
Thomas Bathe kt, lord and baron of Louth;
John Chevir, chief justice of the K.'s bench in Ire.;
John Cornwalshe kt, chief baron of the Ex of Ire.;
Edmund Dudley and Hugh Calveley knights, and others.

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
Authorized: 
By p.s.
C: 

CPR 1467–77, p. 193 (=an inspeximus dated at Westminster, 19 Feb. 1470).

N: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 586–92.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
4
28 Jul. 1468
Drogheda

LICENCE to Maurice Burghill esq. to absent himself from Ire. for eight years, receiving the issues [etc.].

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
N: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 594–6.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
5
28 Jul. 1468
Drogheda

LICENCE to Robert Bold esq. to absent himself from Ire. for eight years and reside where it may best please him in Eng. or elsewhere. And that he in the meantime by himself, his servants, deputies and attorneys whomsoever, proceeding as well from all the manors, lordships, lands, tenements and possessions, as from whatsoever offices, pensions and perquisites he now has and shall hereafter happen to have, and them to him into Eng. or elsewhere may send from time to time, at the will of Robert, without impeachment or impediment, disturbance, molestation or grievance, of the K., his heirs, officers or ministers whomsoever in future; any statutes, acts or ordinances against absentees possessing lands, tenements, rents, services, or any other possessions within the land of Ire., and not residing thereon, nor finding defensive people in their places, according to the effect of the statutes, acts and ordinances made or enacted, notwithstanding.

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 592–4.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
6
13 Aug. 1468
Drogheda

Considering attentively the good, acceptable and daily services that the K.'s beloved and faithful servant has rendered both to the K.'s father, the most excellent prince of famous memory, Richard duke of York, and also to the K., both within the realm of Eng. and the land of Ire., and elsewhere in the K.'s wars, and which he shall perform in service; and considering that the glory of princes consists in the multitude of subjects and that the royal throne is exalted and the government of the land strengthened in proportion to the number of noblemen who are his subjects, the K. has, of his special grace and by assent of John, e. Worcester, deputy of the K.'s brother George duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire., ORDAINED, MADE and CONSTITUTED the said Robert Bold a lord and baron of all and singular the K.'s parliaments and great councils held in the land of Ire.; to have and to hold, together with the style, title, name, honour, place and seat of the same, to him and his heirs male forever, as is fitting.

Also considering that Philip Dommer esq. had 20m p.a. of the K.'s grant to be received from the K.'s manor and lordship of Ratoath, as is expressed more fully in the K.'s letters patent, which Philip has returned into the chancery of Ire. to be cancelled. And so that the increase of resources may follow the exaltation of the name, since goods are always annexed to honours [ut ad exaltationem nominis sequatur augmentatio facultatum, cum semper honoribus onera sunt annexa], GIFT and GRANT to Robert of the manor or lordship of Ratoath with the style, title, name and honour of Lord and Baron of Ratoath; and also the rents, issues, profits, services, wardships, marraiges and other commodities pertaining to that manor or lordship, together with courts and other advantages whatsoever; to have and to hold that manor or lordships together with the said style [etc.] to himself and his heirs male issuing from his body forever, rendering to the K. a hawk called a Goshawke yeach year at Michaelmas, for all secular service. Although express mention is not made by these presents of the true annual value of the manor or lordship, or other gifts made by the K. to Robert. Notwithstanding any statute, act, ordinance, restriction or provision made before this time in Eng. or Ire.

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy of the K.'s brother George duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire.
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 622–4; BL, Add. MS 4784, ff 233v–234r.

C: 

NAI, Ferguson Coll. 3, p. 226; Lynch, Legal institutions, pp 182–3.

N: 

Brian C. Donovan and David Edwards (eds), 'British sources for Irish history before 1485: a preliminary handlist of documents held in local and specialised repositories', AH, no. 37 (1998), 203 (citing extracts in Lincoln's Inn Library, London, Hale MS 12, art. 89).

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
7
12 Nov. 1468
Drogheda

GRANT to the town of Kells, which is situated on the frontier of the march and needs much for the repairs of its walls, of the following customs of things saleable coming to the town or to any township within its barony, viz.:

from each crannock of corn, ½d;
from each crannock of salt for, ¼d;
from a working horse or cow for sale, 1d;
from a goshawk and tercel for sale, ½d;
from a hide of pig or cow, ½d;
from a hide, salted or tanned, of pig, cow or horse, ¼d;
from 10 sheep or goats for sale, 1d;
from 5 ? ½d;
from 12 eels, ½d;
from 100 sheepskins, unsheared or sheared, 2d;
from each 100 lambskins called fells, ½d;
from 100 skins of kid, hare, rabbit, wolf, cat or squirrel, ½d;
from 100 skins of deer, otter or fawn, ½d;
from a hundredweight of Irish cloth, 2d;
from a hundredweight of linen or woven cloth, 2d;
from a measure of broadcloth of whatever colour, 1d;
from a measure of Irish broadcloth, ¼d;
from a frieze cloak, ¼d;
from a cask of wine, 1d;
from a stone of onions, butter or cheese, ½d;
from a cartload of big timber, ½d;
from a cartload of firewood, ¼d;
from a stone of refuse wool, ½d;
from a hundredweight of wax, 4d;
from a sum of flour, 1d;
from a hundredweight of lead, and tin, 4d;
from a hundredweight of verdigris [?], 2d;
from 100 iron keys, 1d;
from 100 spokes, ½d;
from a hundredweight of piscis zuti [?],½d;
from a hundredweight of tiles, ½d;
from a hundredweight of brass copper or other metal, 2d;
from a pair of wheels, ½d;
and from all other merchandise valued at 2s selling price, ½d.

These customs are to be levied and used for fencing and fortifying. And the lord and provost of Kells and their successors may each year, with the assent of the burgesses, or a majority of them, appoint two upright men of the town to collect the customs and the money to be spent on enclosing and fortifying the town at the discretion of the lord, provosts [etc.]. The two men are to account. Always providing that this is not prejudicial to the franchise of the city of Dublin and the town of Drogheda or any other ancient city or franchise, saving to James Ketyng, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire. and his successors all rights and interests.

Attested: 
John, e. Worcester, deputy
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 644–8.

C: 

COA, PH 15175, p. 229; NAI, RC 8/41, pp 225–9.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
8
9 Dec. 1468
Drogheda

By assent of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire., APPOINTMENT of James and Edmund Butler, sons of Piers Butler, as special commissioners to treat for peace with Irish enemies and English rebels and outlaws.

O: 

NLI, D 1805.

C: 

COD, iii, §232.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
9
22 Feb. 1469
Drogheda

GRANT, in perpetuity, for the increase of divine service and for the health of the K. and his consort and the souls of the K.'s ancestors, to Walter, abbot of Blessed Mary the Virgin near Dublin, of a water-mill, with appurtenances, called Kingsmill in the castle of Dublin and the church of St Andrew outside the walls of the city.

C: 

NAI, RC 8/41, pp 267–8.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife