patent Roll 5 Edward IV

1
23 Oct. 1465
Dublin

GRANT, for life, to Gerrot fitz Gerrot, gentleman, and Thomas Walsh clk, of the office of controllers of the customs and coket in the ports of Dublin and Drogheda, to hold by themselves or sufficient deputies in survivorship, receiving 10m p.a. out of the said customs and coket.

N: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, p. 422.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.
2
5 Nov. 1465
Dublin

INSPEXIMUS of the following charters in favour of Dundalk, viz.:

[1] A charter of Richard II granting and confirming to the burgesses of Dundalk that the town shall be a free borough forever, to have a merchant guild, with sac and soc and other customs; a provost to be chosen by the common council of the borough; the fishing of the water of Dundalk as amply they had ever enjoyed the same; a fair to last for 15 days, viz. on the Monday after 1 May and for the 14 days following.

[2] A charter dated at Dublin, 1 Jan. [1424] 3 Hen. VI, inspecting a charter of Henry IV dated of 24 June 1412.

[3] A grant of those tolls and customs, dated at Dublin 20 Nov. 1428 for 24 years more from the termination of the said 18 years;

[4] A further grant dated 7 March 1445 for 30 more years from the end of the said 24 years.

RATIFICATION and CONFIRMATION in parliament held at Trim on Monday after St Laurence the Martyr [12 Aug. 1565].

C: 

BL, Egerton MS 76, p. 53.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
3
13 Dec. 1465
Trim

PARDON, for good service and with the assent of Thomas Desmond, e. Desmond, deputy, to Peter Trevers and Elizabeth his wife for all trespasses and all outlawries promulgated against them and also pardon of all debts, accounts and arrears owed by them.

C: 

NAI, RC 8/41, p. 55.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
4
20 Dec. 1465

GRANT to John Bennet and his assigns of 76s 8d p.a. for a term of 60 years upon certain lands in Ballytyre.

Attested: 
Thomas Desmond, e. Desmond, deputy Lt
N: 

D. B. Quinn (ed.), 'Guide to financial records for Irish history, 1461–1558: with illustrative extracts, 1461–1509', AH, no. 10 (1941), p. 21.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
5
4 Jan. 1466
Dublin

EXEMPTION, for life, to Jenico Markes, citizen and merchant of Dublin, from being placed on assizes [etc.] and from being made sheriff, coroner, overseer or keeper of the peace, seneschal, bailiff, mayor, constable of the staple or burgess elected to come to parliament, […] or collector. PARDON to him of all felonies and other offences against the peace. And he is to have and enjoy all lands which he had before this time and his possession of them is confirmed to him and his heirs forever.

Attested: 
Thomas Desmond, e. Desmond, deputy
C: 

NAI, RC 8/41, pp 365–6; RIA, MS 24.H.17, p. 87.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
6
17 Oct. 1465
Dublin

It is ordained by authority of parliament that letters patent be made to Thomas, e. Desmond, and [Elis] his wife, Thomas, e. Kildare, and Joan his wife, William [Sherwood], bp Meath, Christopher Plunket kt, and Elizabeth his wife, Richard Plunket esq., Nicholas Plunket esq., Gerald Plunket esq., Oliver Plunket esq., and John s. of John Plunket esq., in the form following:

At the petition of Thomas, e. Desmond, and [Elis] his wife, Thomas, e. Kildare, and Joan his wife, William [Sherwood], bp Meath, Christopher Plunket kt, and Elizabeth his wife, Richard Plunket esq., Nicholas Plunket esq., Gerald Plunket esq., Oliver Plunket esq., and John s. of John Plunket esq. in parliament at Trim on Monday next after St Laurence the Martyr 5 Edw. IV before Thomas Desmond, e. Desmond, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt, and from thence to the city of Dublin adjourned and continued by the K.’s special grace, and by the advice and assent of the deputy and of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons of the land, being in parliament, by authority of the parliament. The K. has granted and given licence for himself, his heirs and successors, as far as in him lies, to Thomas, e. Desmond [etc.], incited by the zeal of pious devotion and fervour of charity, that they or their survivors may ordain a chapel to the glory of God and honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, [and] a fraternity or guild successively and in perpetual succession of themselves and other persons, as well men as women, in the parish church of St Nicholas of Dunsany may begin anew, commence, enter into, make, found, order and establish, and those persons and those whomsoever adhering voluntarily to them, may receive, admit and accept as brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild. And that the brethren of the fraternity or guild so begun, commenced, entered into, made, founded, ordained and established, shall have every year full power to elect, ordain and successively constitute two masters from among themselves, who may have every year full power to elect, ordain and successively constitute two masters from among themselves, who may have the rule, government and supervision of such fraternity or guild, and the custody of all lands, tenements, rents, services, possessions, goods and chattels, that shall happen henceforth to be acquired, given, granted, or assigned, or appertain to the fraternity or guild; and those masters from year to year and from time to time, when there shall be occasion and necessity, from the offices to remove, discharge; and to place, institute and substitute any others in their place and name, as they shall please. And also to make, begin and institute among themselves and of themselves a perpetual fraternity or guild. And to have and use a common seal to serve for business and transactions relating to the fraternity or guild henceforth. And also that the masters and their successors, masters there, who for the time shall be, for that guild or fraternity and for the lands, tenements, rents, services, possessions, goods and chattels of the fraternity or guild, in whatsoever actions, causes, plaints, demands and pleas, as well real and personal as mixed, of whatsoever kind or nature they be, by the name of the masters of the fraternity or guild of St Nicholas the Bishop, of Dunsany, before secular and ecclesiastical judges whomsoever, may implead and be impleaded, answer and be answered and may and ought to implead and be impleaded and also to answer and be answered. And that Thomas, e. Desmond, [etc.] and the brethren of the fraternity or guild, and their successors, shall and may meet at fit or convenient times and places, as often and when they shall please best, to treat, agree and communicate among themselves, together with others, for having counsel and advice for the state and good government of the fraternity or guild, and of the brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild, and their successors; and to make lawful and honest ordinances to the glory of God and the honour of St Nicholas, for the good government of the fraternity or guild from year to year and time to time; and the same ordinances in like manner from time to time, when there shall be occasion and necessity, to augment or diminish, according to the discretion of them the masters and brethren of the fraternity or guild, and their successors, masters and brethren of the fraternity or guild for ever. And further, by assent of parliament, the K. has granted to Thomas, e. Desmond, [etc.] that they or their survivors may make, ordain and establish, to the glory of God and the honour of St Nicholas, according to the discretion, ordinance and provision of the above named, or any of them who shall survive, a chantry of three chaplains and one clerk or more, to celebrate divine worship daily in that church for ever, for the salutary state of the K., Thomas, e. Desmond [etc.], and of the brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild, as long as they shall live, and for the souls of the K.’s father Richard, late duke of York, and of his progenitors, [and] of all and singular the above mentioned, when they shall have passed away from this light, and also of the brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild, and their successors and benefactors, and of all the faithful departed for ever. And that the said masters and brethren and sisters and their successors, masters and brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild, who for the time shall be, may from year to year and time to time depose and remove the chaplains and clerk, and elect and place other proper persons in their places as they shall please. And that the masters and brethren and sisters, and their successors, may meet at fit times and places, when they shall best please, to treat and make ordinances to be made in this behalf. And moreover, the K. has granted and given licence to the masters, brethren, and sisters of the fraternity or guild and their successors for the time being, when the fraternity or guild shall be made, ordained and established as is aforesaid, that they may acquire lands, tenements, rents, services and advowsons of churches or of chantries, as well in demesne and fee as in reversion, with the appurtenances, up to the value of 80m p.a., above charges and reprises, whether they may be held of the K. in chief or of others, to have and to hold to them and to their successors, masters and brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild, for ever, of the chief lords of those fees by the services thereout due and of right accustomed; to find, support and sustain, the charges of the chantry of three chaplains and of one clerk or of more in the said chantry, as is aforesaid, to celebrate and perform other works of piety for the state and for the said souls for ever. The statute made against putting lands and tenements in mortmain, or any other statutes or ordinances whatsoever in like manner heretofore enacted to the contrary, notwithstanding. Provided, however, that by inquisition to be taken in due form and duly returned to the Irish chancery, it to be found that it can be done without damage or injury to the K. or his heirs or to any other whomsoever. Being unwilling that Thomas, e. Desmond, [etc.], or their heirs, or the masters of the fraternity or guild, or the brethren and sisters of the fraternity or guild or their successors, by reason of the statutes, ordinances or other the premises, by reason of the statutes, ordinances or other the premises, by the K., his heirs or successors, justices, escheators, sheriffs, or others the bailiffs or officers of the K. or his heirs or successors, of the realm of Eng., or of others whomsoever, should therein be harassed, troubled or in any thing aggrieved.

Attested: 
Thomas Dessemond, e. Desmond
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 322–30.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
7
20 Nov. 1465
Drogheda

It is ordained by authority of parliament that letters patent be made to Richard Lang, bp Kildare, in the form following:

Considering how Richard [Lang], bp Kildare, intends to pursue various affairs in Eng. and some other parts, concerning the K.’s own prosperity and that of his land of Ire., and Thomas Desmond, e. Desmond, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt, and also concerning the church of the said bishop of Kildare, of the K.’s special grace, by assent of the deputy and the lords spiritual and temporal, and also of the commons, in parliament held at Trim on Monday next after St Laurence the Martyr [++] last past, before the deputy, and from thence adjourned to the city of Dublin, and also thence in like manner to Drogheda, likewise adjourned and continued, and by authority of the parliament, have granted and given licence to the bishop, that he may absent himself out of Ire. for a term of three years following fully completed, and reside in Eng. or elsewhere in the said parts. And that in the meantime by himself, his attorneys, deputies, proctors and servants whomsoever, all manner of tithes, oblations, obventions, proxies, synodals, altarages, emoluments, and all other issues, rents, profits, commodities and annuities whatsoever accruing, as well of spiritualities as temporalities whatsoever, in the absence of the bishop, freely, quietly and with impunity, he may receive, collect and enjoy, and the monies thence arising to the use of the bishop from time to time may send and carry to the parts of Eng. or elsewhere, without any impeachment or hindrance , disturbance or grievance, from the K., his heirs, officers or ministers or others whomsoever in future; any statutes, acts or ordinances against absentees having lands, tenements, rents, benefices and other possessions within Ire., and not residing upon them, nor finding in their places people for defence, according to the tenor of the statutes, acts and ordinances heretofore in such case enacted, or any other statutes notwithstanding.

Attested: 
Thomas Dessemond, e. Desmond, deputy
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 370–72.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife