patent Roll 15 Edward IV

1
15 Jul. 1475

GRANT, for good service, to Christopher Nugent esq. of the manors or lordships of Belgard and Fore, which do not exceed the value of £12 p.a., to hold for life without rendering any account.

Attested: 
William Sherwood, bp Meath, deputy
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 2, pp 454–6.

C: 

CPR 1467–77, p. 592 (=an inspeximus dated at Westminster, 1 May 1476).

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.
2
21 Jul. 1475
Dublin

GRANT to the mayor, bailiffs and commons of Dublin of £30 p.a. for 40 years.

Attested: 
William [Sherwood], bp Meath, deputy Lt of Ire.
N: 

D. B. Quinn, 'Guide to English financial records for Irish history, 1461–1558, with illustrative extracts, 1461–1509', AH, no. 10 (1941), pp 17–18.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
3
21 Sep. 1475

Of the K.'s special grace and by assent of William [Sherwood], bp Meath, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire., LICENCE of absence for three years to Thomas Talbot esq., Lord Malahide, to absent himself from Ire. for the space of the next three months, and to receive all issues, rents and services from his lands [etc.], and have the money sent to him in Eng. or elsewhere, without impediment from the K. or any of his ministers, notwithstanding any statute, act, ordinance or provision to the contrary, and without finding defensible men in his place.1

Attested: 
[William Sherwood, bp Meath, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire.]
Authorized: 
By bill of the p.s. of the deputy and by authority of parliament of that date.
C: 

Otway-Ruthven, Unpublished calendar of Talbot MSS, box 1, §90; COA, PH 15175, p. 243.

Footnotes: 

1 The original letters conclude with 'mention' of the clerk who oversaw the engrossment: Nagle.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
4
27 Sep. 1475
Dublin

INSPEXIMUS of an act or ordinance made in Dublin on Friday next after St Margaret last past [21 July 1475] before William [Sherwood], bp Meath, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt in Ire., at the request of John Ormond kt, otherwise called John Butler, brother and heir of James, late earl of Wiltshire and Ormond, and remaining on record in the rolls of the chancery of Ire.1

The K., therefore, at the request of Walter, abbot of St Mary’s near Dublin, has thought fit to exemplify the tenour of the said enrolment of these letters patent by these presents.

In witness whereof these letters patent have been made.

Attested by Robert Dowdall kt, chief justice of the common bench, at Dublin, 17 June 16 Edw. III [1476].

Attested: 
William Sherwood, bp Meath, deputy
C: 

COD, §243; NAI, Ferguson Coll. 3, p. 252.

Footnotes: 

1 For the act see Stat. Edw. IV, pt 1, pp 25–9.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
5
3 Jan. 1476
Dublin

Of the K.'s special grace and by assent of William [Sherwood], bp Meath, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire., APPOINTMENT of Thomas fitz Symond, citizen of Dublin, as collector or receive of the customs and coket, boththe great and small customs, from wool, hides, wool-feels, lead, tin and other merchandise, in the port of the city of Dublin, exercising the office by himself or his sufficient deputy, receiving the fees, wages and rewards due and accustomed of old.1

Attested: 
[William Sherwood, bp Meath, deputy of George, duke of Clarence, Lt of Ire.]
Authorized: 
By bill of the p.s. of the deputy and by authority of parliament of that date.
C: 

Otway-Ruthven, Unpublished calendar of Talbot MSS, box 1, §91.

Footnotes: 

1 The original letters conclude with 'mention' of the clerk who oversaw the engrossment: Cogley.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
6
30 Oct. 1475
Drogheda

Warrant: It is granted, enacted, ordained and established by authority of parliament that letters patent be made to William [Sherwood], bp Meath and others, to found a chantry of one chaplain in the church of St John the Baptist of Persetown Laundey otherwise Loene, with leave to acquire lands [etc.] up to the value of 100s p.a. without writ of ad quod damnum., in the form that follows:

Whereas William [Sherwood], bp Meath, Roland fitz Eustace kt, lord of Portlester, C. and T. of Ire., Walter Kerdyef of Dowth, esq., Robert Cusak of Cosynestown, esq., Robert Kerdyef, gentleman, William Whitbery, vicar of St John the Baptist of Piercetownlaundey of the diocese of Meath, Thomas Laundey, Edmund Tankard, William Lawless, William Mody, George Whithede and John White, chaplains, inflamed with the fervour of devotion and charity purpose to enter into anew and found a certain perpetual chantry of one chaplain in honour of God, BMV and St John the Baptist for celebrating divine service in the church of St John the Baptist of Piercetownlaundey, otherwise Lecno, for the K.’s state and the souls of the founders, their relatives and friends and also for the souls of John Kerdyef kt, and Anne his daughter who was the late wife of Robert Cusak and the souls of all the faithful departed: whereupon they besought the K. that he should deign to grant to them his royal licence therefor so far as in him lies. The K. commending the pious and salutary purpose of the same William, bp Meath [etc.], and desiring that divine worship should be increased in his time, and willing for that consideration to condescend the more favourably to their prayer, so that he may be made as far as possible a participator in the charity, has granted and given licence to William, bp Meath, [etc.] that they and every of them may enter into anew, found, make, institute, and appoint for ever such chantry; and that William, bp Meath, [etc.] and every of them may give and grant to William Whitbery, chaplain in the chantry, in the said form by force and authority of the presents founded, lands, tenements, rents and services, with their appurtenances, up to a value of 100s p.a. beyond the charges and reprises thereof, whether they be held of the K. or others, without any writ of ad quod damnum, to have and to hold to William Whitbery, chaplain, in the chantry as given, established and to his successors, chaplains successively for ever in such chantry established, without any other licence of the K., his heirs or successors to be obtained or sued therefor. And further, the K. has granted and given licence that the chaplain in the chantry so established and his successors may purchase and acquire lands, tenements, rents and services, with their appurtenances, to the value of 100s p.a. beyond the charges and reprises thereof, whether they be held of the K. or of others, to have and to hold to him and his successors for ever without any writ of ad quod damnum in this behalf to be purchased or obtained; the Statute against putting lands and tenements in mortmain or whatsoever other statute, act, ordinance or provision, thing or matter to the contrary thereof enacted, made, provided or ordained, or had, notwithstanding. And moreover, the K. has granted and given special licence for him and his heirs that the chaplain and his successors in the chantry established may receive, occupy and enjoy all the lands, [etc.] to them given and granted, to him and his successors for ever without any other licence therefor to be purchased or obtained from the K., his heirs or successors. And further, the K. grants to the bishop and his successors for ever that every of them successively, of defects, culpable causes, bad conduct, negligence, ignorance, or for example on account for deficiency of knowledge, death, resignation, translation, surrender, with the assent of Robert Cusak and twelve of the parishioners of the parish, by the bishop for the time being for that purpose to be summoned and sworn to declare the truth as to every of the premises, may exonerate, depose and remove such chaplain in the chantry established from such service, and, so often as it shall be necessary and expedient from time to time, may make, ordain and constitute another fit chaplain in the place and name of him so exonerated, deposed and removed with the assent and will of Robert Cusak and twelve parishioners of the parish; not willing that William, bp Meath, [etc.], or the chaplain for the time being, or any of them or their heirs or the heirs of any one of them or (their successors), or similarly the parishioners for the time being or their successors by reason or occasion of the premises or of any of them, by the K., his heirs or successors shall be troubled, troubled or in any manner aggrieved. Provided always that William Whitbery shall be chaplain in the chantry found during his natural life, without any exoneration, deposition or removal.

Attested: 
William Sherwood, bp Meath, deputy
T: 

Stat. Edw. IV, pt 2, pp 327–32.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife