Patent Roll 1 Richard III

1
20 Mar. 1484
Dublin

INSPEXIMUS of certain acts and ordinances of a parliament held at Dublin on Friday next after St Patrick last past [19 March 1484] before Gerald e. Kildare, deputy of Edward, the K’s son, Lt of Ire., passed at the request of the commons of the said land in these words [in French], viz.:

'Also at the request of the commons that as the two thirds of the prise wines of this land of Ire. belong to Gerald e. Kildare, deputy Lt, as in right of the K. by reason of the absence of the earl of Ormond according to the act made in this matter in this land, which prises are retained in the city of Limerick by one William Comyn and Thomas Comyn of the same without any reasonable cause: on which the premises considered it is ordained enacted and established by authority of this parliament that the said William and Thomas shall make due satisfaction or composition with the said deputy for the said two thirds of the prise wines before St Peter in Chains next [1 Aug. 1484], otherwise to be attainted felons. And if the said prise wines be not paid to the said deputy or his assigns according to the statute aforesaid [etc.], it shall be lawful for the deputy to take the goods and bodies of the said William and Thomas their aiders and maintainers or any of them in the city aforesaid, as may be found in the land of Ire. and to keep them until the time that the said deputy shall be duly satisfied in all that by right belongs to him by reason of the said prise wines. Also at the request of the commons, that as James Collyng clk, has counterfeited [contrive] the g.s. of the K. in Ire. and by the same has given letters patent of the K. of pardon under the g.s. so counterfeited sealed, to one Geffrey Arthur by name of Geffrey Artour, treasurer of the cathedral church of Limerick, and to all manner of delegates, sub-delegates, maintainers, counsellors and other notaries, and all of his adherents of all manner of provisions and executions of the same; as by said letters patent more fully appears. On which, the premises considered, it is ordained and enacted [etc.], that the said letters patent and everything contained in them shall be void and of no effect in law. And by the same authority the said James shall come and appear in person before the chief justice of the common place of the K. in Ire. in Dublin castle on Monday after the Nativity of St John the Baptist next [28 June 1484], to abide in the custody of the marshal of the same without bail or mainprize unto the time that the premises be duly examined and argued according to law and conscience. And if said James does not appear as aforesaid, then he shall be forejudged in all the K.’s courts in Ire.'

Attested: 
Gerald e. Kildare, deputy Lt
O: 

NLI, D 1841.

C: 

COD, iii, §261.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.
2
17 Jul. 1484
Dublin

By the death of various merchants of the K.'s town of New Ross, certain of them murdered and killed both by land and by sea, [that town] is greatly impoverished and there is no law, justice nor good governance in any parts around that town but rather rebellion, extortion, murder, killing, robbery and open war waged upon the same town by the K.'s Irish enemies. Because the merchants of that town are scarcely able to keep it, nor to repair and sustain its walls and port without great relief, GIFT and GRANT of the K.'s special grace to the sovereign and provost and commons of that town and their successors of a certain chief rent of that town which extends to £4 p.a., in the K.'s hand for certain reasons, to have and to hold for as long as it remains in the K.'s hand, so that they might repair that town and its walls and port. The chief rent is to be received and levied by the said sovereign and provost and his successors at Michaelmas and Easter by equal portions, without paying anything or rendering any account.1

Attested: 
Gerald e. Kildare, Jcr of Ire.
T: 

CPI, p. 73.

Footnotes: 

1 This letter is attributed in error to the reign of Richard II in CPI, p. 73.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
3
3 Aug. 1484
Dublin

In a certain parliament held at Limerick in 14831 before Gerald e. Kildare, then deputy of Richard duke of York, Lt of Edward IV in Ire., at the request of Isak, professor of sacred theology and priest of the Order of Friars Minor within the land of Ire., it was ordained and established by assent of the deputy and the lords spiritual and temporal, and the proctors and commons, that gifts and grants of every kind―such as messuages, lands, tenements, rents and services―granted, bequeathed or demised generally or specially to that order or to any warden or convent of the same; and also privileges, franchises, liberties and immunities of every kind, given or granted to any warden, convent of house of that order, should be accepted, approved and ratified; and further that the priests, wardens and brothers of that order and their successors should have and hold the same without any writ of ad quod damnum or any other suit, including the Statute of Mortmain. ORDER, therefore, that the priests, wardens, convents, brothers and houses of that order, and their successors, should benefit from that act and not be subjected to anything against the tenor of the same.

Attested: 
Gerald e. Kildare, Jcr
C: 

Colm Lennon and James Murray (ed.), The Dublin city franchise roll, 1468–1512 (Dublin, 1998), p. 65.

Footnotes: 

1 A parliament met on Friday before Ash Wednesday, i.e. 7 Feb. [1483] 23 Edw. IV (Ir. parl., p. 363).

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife
4
[No date.]

RESTORATION of temporalities to [Walter FitzSimon] the archbishop of Dublin.1

C: 

BL, Egerton MS 78, p. 28.

Footnotes: 

1 FitzSimon was appointed archbishop on 14 June 1484, after the resignation of John Walton. The regnal year ends on 25 June.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife