Patent Roll 6 Henry V

12 Jan. 1419
Trim

INSPEXIMUS of an act [written in French] in the K.’s council summoned and held before John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas on the next Saturday before St Clement the Pope 5 Hen. V [20 Nov 1417], in these words:1

‘[p. 80] MEMORANDUM [concerning a meeting of] the K.’s council held before John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas on Saturday before St Clement the Pope 5 Hen. V [20 Nov. 1417]. On the Tuesday following, which is to say the fourth day, by order of the [p. 81] Lt, Sir Laurence Merbury, C. of Ire., declared in the presence of all the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons of the said land, assembled at the same council, the reason for the summons of the council in the following form:

First that lately debate and discord had arisen between brother Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., on one side, and Walter Burk, chieftain of his lineage, on the other; and both parties had assembled and retained with them many men, both horse and foot, the K.’s Irish enemies and English rebels, to a very great number in order to ride against each other and destroy the K.’s liege people; and also they had assessed their said men upon the K.’s lieges in cos. Kilkenny, Limerick and Tipperary, and taken their goods and chattels against their [will and contrary to] the K.’s laws and statutes. And furthermore the C. declared that the Lt, by the advice of the K.’s council, had already issued several writs to those parties charging them, upon their allegiance and forfeiture of all that they could forfeit, to withdraw their men from the K.’s lieges without delay and to end their discords and debates. The tenor of the writs sent to the prior and Walter follows here, viz.:

“WRIT [in Latin] to Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire.
Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas, 20 Oct. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”2

[p. 82] “WRIT [in Latin] to Walter Burgh, chieftain of his lineage.
Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas, 20 Oct. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”3

[p. 83] Notwithstanding these writs, the prior and Walter continued their dissensions and debates daily. Upon this the Lt wished to be advised by the lords spiritual and temporal as to how he should rule in that matter in salvation of the K.’s faithful lieges in those counties. Afterwards, certain letters of the prior were delivered in the same council to the Lt, the tenor of which follows here [in Latin]:

“To John Talbot kt, Lord Furnival and K.’s Lt in Ire., from brother Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., with all honour and reverence, greetings.

Know that Walter Burgh observed the K.’s peace, lately made in the Lt’s presence at Waterford, towards the faithful English and K.’s lieges of co. Tipperary for only a few days for the purpose of invading and burning them with a great power of Irish enemies and rebels, and in order to destroy their power, no provocation having been made or given to him by the prior; and on that account the prior gathered together his friends and well-wishers in order to resist the malice of the said Walter, who by day and night ceases not to destroy and injure the prior and the K.’s people, to such an extent that the prior cannot absent himself from the said parts nor be personally present at the council without great destruction [to himself and] the K.’s faithful lieges of those parts. For that reason the prior asks the Lt to excuse him and to summon Walter to his presence; and to appoint a safe day and place for all actions and debates between the prior and the said Walter to be adjudicated by the Lt and the K.’s council and by advice of the prior’s peers.

Written on 19 Nov. [1417].
Brother Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire.”

After this, on Thursday next before St Andrew the Apostle following [25 Nov. 1417], one William Burk kt came before the Lt and presented himself as a liegeman of the K. and offered to be a pledge and surety for the said Walter so that the latter might receive justice from the Lt and council in all manner of legal actions and complaints pending between him and the prior. And the Lt, in that council in the presence of the lords spiritual and temporal, agreed to this and, by advice of the lords, ordered that several writs of the K. should be addressed to the prior and Walter instructing them to be present at the council on the Tuesday next after the [p. 84] Conception of Our Lady following [14 Dec. 1417]. The tenor of the writs sent to the prior and Walter follow here, viz.:

“WRIT [in Latin] to Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire.
Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas, 27 Nov. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”4

“WRIT [in Latin] to Walter Burgh.
Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas, 27 Nov. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”5

[p. 85] And then the Lt, by advice of the lords, adjourned the council to the town of Naas until that Tuesday [14 Dec. 147] for those reasons. On that Tuesday the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons appeared before the Lt in the council, where it was declared by Hugh Burgh esq., T. of Ire., that the prior had informed him through brother Robert Blakebourne, confrere of the prior, that if the Lt would grant a safe conduct to the prior and all his men coming with him, and would send certain persons to him at the town of Ballymore―viz. Sir Thomas Talbot; Sir Laurence Merbury, C. of Ire.; Sir Edward Perers; Hugh Burgh, T. of Ire.; and Thomas Cusak, mayor of the city of Dublin―, that then the prior would come before Lt in the council, and not otherwise. And the said Robert [Blakebourne], who was then present, was asked if the T.’s statement reflected the message of the prior; and he [Robert] stated that it did so in all points.

And the C., by order of the Lt, instructed Robert [Blakebourne] to go to the prior at the town of Ballymore, co. Dublin, and inform him that Sir Thomas Talbot was occupied in the parts of Meath engaged in affairs concerning his office of seneschal of Meath; and that the said mayor [of Dublin] was occupied in resisting the malice of the Obryn, the K.’s Irish enemy, and other enemies of the K. neighbouring co. Dublin who were openly at war; and that for the better redress of the prior in the said matters the Lt, by advice of the K’s council and the said lords, would grant a safe conduct to the prior and all the K.’s lieges who were with him in coming [p. 86] [to that council] and returning. And also that the C., T. and Sir Edward [Perers] would go to him and guard him safely in coming to that council and returning. And Robert was sworn upon the gospels in the council in the presence of the lords to deliver this message.

On the Friday following [17 Dec. 1417] Robert appeared before the Lt and council and was asked by the C. if he had declared his message to the prior in the said manner; and he said that he had done so. And further he was charged and sworn to declare the answer of the prior. He said, in the presence of the lords spiritual and temporal, that the prior did not wish to come to the Lt because the said Sir Thomas and the mayor had not come to him as he had desired them to do. On that Friday the prior was solemnly summoned in the said council by force of the writ directed to him; and he did not appear, but made default, and his default was recorded in the council.

And on that Friday the said Walter Burk came in person before the Lt and the lords in the council, in the presence of the commons, and there he stated openly that when the Lt and council were last present in the town of Kilkenny, the prior offered to put sufficient pledges into the hands of the Lt to do right to the said Walter concerning all manner of actions and debates pending between him and Walter; and that he, for his part, wished to do likewise; and the said Walter was informed by the letters of the Lt sent to him to meet the Lt at Clonmel to do for his part as the prior had offered to do for his part. Walter appeared there and, in the presence of the prior, offered to abide by the orders of the Lt in all points; and upon this he put sufficient pledges into his hands. And because the prior did not have the pledges ready at that time, the Lt appointed a day for the parties to appear before him, with their pledges, at the city of Waterford on the following Monday. The said Walter came with his pledges ready; and neither the prior nor his pledges appeared. Nevertheless Walter undertook by indenture to be a faithful liegeman to the K. [p. 87], and he was sworn upon the holy gospels in the cathedral church of Waterford in the presence of the Lt, the bishop of Waterford, the earl of Desmond, the C. and T., the mayor of Waterford, and many other gentlemen [gentiles]; and he also undertook to make due amends to all the K.’s lieges for any harm inflicted upon them by Walter and his men, according to the ordinance and decree of the Lt and the K’s council. Whereupon Walter was admitted to the K.’s peace.6

Before Walter departed from the Lt’s presence, the prior sent his men to make war in Walter’s territory and infringed the said peace. The prior’s men took 20 persons as prisoners, 20 draught-horses and 80 pigs; and departed with them. Therefore Walter sent one Davy Galle Bourke, his cousin, to the prior to seek restoration of those prisoners. At that meeting, certain of the prior’s men assaulted the same Davy in warlike manner and took two of his horses and then pursued him such that he barely escaped with his life. Whereupon, in salvation of his territory and its men, and in resistance of the malice of the prior and his adherents, the said Walter assembled a great force of men until he was instructed by the K.’s writ to withdraw, and upon his faith and allegiance to desist from and end the discords and debates between him and the prior. Walter humbly and in all points obeyed the K.’s writ and his men withdrew, as required by that writ. Notwithstanding this, when Walter had withdrawn his force and men, the same prior came in warlike manner with a great army and burned and destroyed Walter’s territory. And then Walter received another writ of the K., instructing him upon his faith and allegiance to end all such insurrections, riots and debates and also to appear in person at the council on Tuesday next after the Conception of Our Lady [14 Dec. 1417] in order to answer upon these things.

On the specified day Walter appeared in that council and asked the Lt and the lords spiritual and temporal assembled there to record his appearance and to do right to him in the above matters. And he declared that he wished to place his son and brother as pledges into the hands of the Lt; and that the prior was guilty of breach the peace and of inflicting insurrections, riots, debates and oppressions upon the K.’s liege people. And furthermore Walter declared that, if the prior did not appear, the said Walter wished to leave his [p.88] pledges in the custody of the Lt and go to Eng. into the K.’s presence and there prove these matters in the specified manner. Then, seeing that the prior was absent and had disobeyed the summons, the lords spiritual and temporal were asked by the C. of Ire. how and in what manner the Lt should proceed in this matter. The lords sought permission from the Lt to consult among themselves: and, although they declared that they wished to acquit themselves well and loyally towards the K. and although it was the usage of the land [of Ire.] that lords spiritual and temporal are summoned by writ to appear in the K.’s councils held in the said land, they expressed doubt as to whether they were able or would have the competence to determine such great and heinous matters in a council in the same manner as they could in a parliament. And consequently they pleaded to the Lt to summon [a parliament to determine] the said matters and others touching the estate and salvation of Ire. And furthermore they advised that writs of summons should be issued to the prior to appear at that parliament to answer […] concerning the said matters. And furthermore, because they were not expert nor learned in such matters, they pleaded to the Lt to require his council to consider the manner and form that the said writs and processes should be take.7

And upon this, at the request of the lords, a parliament was ordained to meet at Dublin on Monday the feast of St Valentine the Martyr next [14 Feb. 1418], and the same day was given to Walter. Whereupon several writs of proclamation were issued both to the sheriff of co. Dublin (within the bounds of which county lies Kilmainham, the principal house of the hospital [of St John of Jerusalem] in Ire.) and also to other sheriffs and seneschals of counties, liberties and crosslands in which the prior had various lordships and possessions, viz. to the sheriffs of cos. Kildare, Louth, Carlow, Kilkenny and Waterford; and to the seneschal of the liberty of Meath and the sheriff of the crosslands there, the seneschal of the liberty of Tipperary and the sheriff of the crosslands there, and the seneschal of the liberty of Wexford and the sheriff of the crosslands. The tenor of the writ directed to the sheriff of Dublin follows here, viz.:

“WRIT [in Latin] to the sheriff of Dublin ordering proclamation of summons of prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire.
[p. 89] Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas on 17 Dec. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”7

And similar writs of the same date were issued to various sheriffs, seneschals of liberties and sheriffs of crosslands.’8

INSPEXIMUS also certain acts [in French] in a parliament summoned and held before the said Lt at Dublin on Monday, the feast of St Valentine the Martyr 5 Hen. V [14 Feb. 1418], in these words:

‘MEMORANDUM that in the K.’s parliament held at Dublin on Monday, the feast of St Valentine the Martyr 5 Hen. V [14 Feb. 1418], before John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., Sir Laurence Merbury, C. of Ire., by order of the Lt, in the presence of the Lt and the lords spiritual and temporal and also the commons of the said land assembled at the same parliament, declared how lately several writs had been addressed the sheriffs of Dublin, Louth, Kildare, Carlow, Kilkenny, Waterford; the seneschal of the liberty of Meath and the sheriff of the crosslands there; the seneschal of the liberty of Tipperary and the sheriff of the crosslands there; and the seneschal of Wexford and sheriff of the crosslands there. By these writs they were commanded to make proclamation [p. 90] without delay in all cities, boroughs, market towns and other places within their bailiwicks that brother Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., should appear in the parliament at Dublin on the feast of St Valentine the Martyr 5 Hen. V [14 Feb. 1418] before the K. to answer upon high crimes, contempts and offences, as appears more fully in those writs. The tenor of the writ sent to the sheriff of Dublin follows here:

“WRIT to the sheriff of Dublin ordering proclamation of summons of prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire.
Attested by John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire., at Naas on 17 Dec. [1417] 5 Hen. V.”9

The return of the sheriff of Dublin to that writ follows here, viz.:
“I, John s. of Reginald Talbot, sheriff of Dublin, caused proclamation on Sunday next after St Hilary 5 Hen. V [16 Jan. 1418] in the following places―the city of Dublin, the borough of Swords, the borough of Stradbally, the borough of Saggart, the borough of Newcastle, the borough of Lucan, the borough of Kilmainham, the borough of Dalkey and in the market town of Lusk and the market town of Garyestoun, and in other places of my county―that Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., should appear in the parliament at Dublin on the feast of St Valentine the Martyr 5 Hen. V [14 Feb. 1418].”

[p. 91] And Richard Wellesley, sheriff of Kildare, returned that he caused proclamation to be made at Naas on Monday before the Conversion of St Paul [24 Jan. 1418], and also at the following places, viz.:

Kilcoke on Sunday after the Conversion of St Paul [30 Jan.];
Cloncurrey on Monday after the Conversion of St Paul [31 Jan.];
Kildare on Saturday after the Conversion of St Paul [29 Jan.];
Leixlip on Tuesday before the Purification of BMV[1 Feb.];
Clane on Thursday after the Purification [3 Feb.];
Kyldroght on Friday after the Purification [4 Feb.];
Straffane on Sunday after the Purification [6 Feb.];
la Norragh and Tathy on Monday after the Purification [7 Feb.];
and Castledermot on Tuesday after the Purification [8 Feb.].

And John Wyche, seneschal of the liberty of Wexford, and Henry Rochefort, sheriff of the crosslands of Wexford, similarly returned that they caused proclamation to be made at the market town of Clomen on Monday before the Purification of BMV [31 Jan. 1418]; and in the borough and market town of Wexford in the said liberty and in the towns of Maglas and Fythyrd in the crosslands of Wexford on Saturday following the Purification [5 Jan. 1418].

[p. 92] Whereupon, the C., by order of the Lt, in the presence of the Lt and the lords and commons assembled there in the parliament on that Monday [14 Feb. 1418], solemnly called the prior three times by one Laurence Neweton, the K.’s serjeant-at-arms, at the barriers of the place of the parliament and another three times at the doors of parliament-house, in this form:

“Brother Thomas Butler, prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in Ire., come and appear in this parliament to answer the K. upon high crimes, contempts and offences which will be charged against you according to the tenor of the writs of proclamation made concerning this, on pain of law.”

And after the proclamation had been made three times the prior did not appear. And similar proclamations were made in the same manner and form for another three days, viz. Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday following; and the prior did not appear. After this, on Friday 19 Feb. [1418], the Lt appeared in parliament and, by the assent and advice of the lords spiritual and temporal, adjourned the parliament, in the same estate and condition as it was, to the town of Trim until Monday next after Corpus Christi [30 May 1418].’

The K. has caused the tenor of the said acts to be witnessed, by assent of the Lt and council in Ire.

Attested: 
John Talbot of Halomshire kt, Lt of Ire.
O: 

TNA (PRO), E 163/7/12, mm 2–5.

T: 

A. J. Otway-Ruthven (ed.), ‘The background to the arrest of Sir Christopher Preston in 1418’, AH, no. 29 (1980), 80–92.

Footnotes: 

1 Numbers in square brackets refer to the pagination in Otway-Ruthven (ed.), 'Background to the arrest'.
2 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §7.
3 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §8.
4 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §9.
5 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §10.
6 The French at this point is 'et sur ceo la pees du dit Wauter fuist proclamez', literally translated: 'And upon this the peace of the said Walter was proclaimed'. It is clear from the context that it is the K.'s peace, to which Walter has been admitted, that is being proclaimed.
7 Membrane 5 of TNA (PRO) E 163/7/12 is badly stained at this point and some parts of the text are illegible (as indicated by ellipses in Otway-Ruthven (ed.), 'Background to the arrest', p. 88). A similar, though not identical, account of the same proceedings occurs earlier in the MSS (Otway-Ruthven (ed.), 'Background to the arrest', p. 77), and I have drawn on this in calendaring the foregoing paragraph.
7 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §12.
8 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §13.
9 CIRCLE, CR 5 Hen. IV, §12.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.