Patent Roll 49 Edward III

26 Jan. 1375
To the K.'s beloved sovereign, bailiffs and worthy men of the town of Youghal.

The K. has considered how the town of Youghal and its neighbouring parts are impoverished and for the greater part destroyed by various rebels of the K. in co. Cork who continuously prey and kill the K.'s faithful people there, and also the good and advantageous place that the town daily holds for the K.'s faithful people. Earnestly wishing for the relief, improvement and fortification of that town, GRANT that the sovereign, bailiffs and worthy men of the town of Youghal, in person or through deputies appointed by them, may take, collect, receive and have the following customs from all and singular articles for sale coming to that town, both by land and by water, in aid of the murage and pavage of the said town and necessary other works for the two years from 1 March [1375] next remaining from a certain other grant formerly made by the K., and thereafter for a term of 20 years, viz.:

from each crannock of any kind of grain, malt, flour and salt for sale, ½d;
from each [crannock] of woad for sale, 2d;
from each crannock of Corker and symak for sale, 1d;
from each crannock [of tan] for sale, [¼d];
from 12 crannocks of any kind of coal for sale, 1d;
from 12 crannocks of lime for sale, ½d;
from [each horse] or mare, hobby, ox or cow for sale, 1d;
from 10 sheep, goats or pigs for sale, [1d];
from 5 bacon hogs for sale, ½d;
from 12 woollen fleeces for sale, ½d;
from each hide of horse or mare, hobby, ox or cow, [whether] fresh, [salted] or tanned for sale, ¼d;
from each hundredweight of skins of lambs, kids, hares, [foxes], cats and squirrels for sale, ½d;
from each hundredweight of wool-fells and skins of goats, stags, hinds, bucks or does for sale, 1d;
from each millstone for sale, 1d;
from 2 hand-mills for sale, ¼d;
from each large sack of wool for sale, 4d;
from each mease of herrings for sale, ¼d;
from 20 large fish for sale in a ship or boat, ½d;
from each horse-load of fish for sale, 1d;
from each load of [sea]-fish for sale, ¼d;
from 100 large fresh-water eels for sale, 1d;
from each salmon for sale, ¼d;
from each lamprey for sale, ¼d;
from each tun of wine [and ashes for sale, 4]d;
from each tun of honey for sale, 4d;
from each sum of honey for sale, 1d;
from each sum of [ashes] for sale, ½d;
from each sum of [cloth] for sale, ½d;
from each whole cloth of standard size [de assisa] for sale, 1d;
[from 20] ells of Irish cloth, both salewyche and worsted [worstede], for sale, ½d;
from 20 ells of linen cloth, English or overseas, for sale, ½d;
from 20 ells of canvas for sale, ¼d;
from 10 felt hats for sale, ½d;
from each carpet or coverlet for sale, ¼d;
from each cloth of silk or brocade for sale, ½d;
from each cap of muslin for sale, ½d;
from each Irish falding for sale, ¼d;
from each ship coming to the said town laden with articles for sale, 3d;
[from each] from each sum of cloth, ½d;
from each band of iron for sale, ½d;
from 100 gads of steel for sale, ½d;
from 100 large boards for sale, ¼d;
from each [1000] large [shingles] for sale, 1d;
from each 1000 [small] shingles for sale, ½d;
from 100 small boards for sale, ¼d;
from 100 pounds of pitch and resin for sale, ½d;
from each stone of tallow, oil, butter and cheese for sale, 1d;
from 10 pounds of shallot [Oygnenet] seeds for sale, ½d;
from 100 pounds of […] seeds for sale, 1d;
from 2,000 onions for sale, ¼d;
from 8 sheaves of garlic for sale, ¼d;
from each boat laden with brush-wood [busca], ½d;
from each boat laden with timber, 1d;
from each 1000 nails for sale, ½d;
from each hundredweight of horse-shoes and cart-clouts for sale, ½d;
from each 1000 [wooden] dishes [and plates] for sale, ½d;
from 12 [ropes for tackling] ships, ¼d;
from each 1000 hinges for sale, ¼d;
from each dozen cordwain [cordywan], corvesii and bascon', ½d;
from each hundredweight of tin, [brass and copper], 2d;
from each hundredweight of scallops and dried fish for sale, 1d;
from 10 stone of hemp and flax for sale, [1d];
from 10 gallons of lamp oil for sale, ½d;
from 10 gallons of olive oil for ointment for sale, 1d;
from each hundredweight of coloured glass for sale, 1d;
from each hundredweight of white glass for sale, ½d;
from each hundredweight of avoirdupois for sale, 1d;
and from any kind of merchandise whatsoever worth 5s, or exceeding that value, both from merchandise specified above or other merchandise not specified for sale in the same town, 1d.
similarly, from any kind of merchandise whatsoever worth 2s, ½d; and worth 12d, ¼d.

The money derived from this is to be spent well and faithfully on the murage and pavage and other necessary works in the said town, and not otherwise; and, at the completion of that term, the customs shall cease and be removed entirely. And they are to take, collect, receive and have the said customs from all and singular articles for sale coming to the same town for 20 years beyond those two years remaining from his former grant, as aforesaid, from 1 March [1375] next coming, in the said form. Always providing that at the end of each year a faithful account of the money received by them is rendered before the venerable fathers the bp Cloyne, the dean of the cathedral of Cloyne and the parson of the said church, or one of them, year on year, and that the same auditors or one of them shall send the account before the T. and barons of the K.'s Ex. of Ire., distinctly and openly […].2

[William Windsor] governor [and keeper of Ire.]

CPI, p. 67 (=Ir. PR 49 Edw. III, m. 2f).


RCH, p. 90, §13; BL, Egerton MS 76, p. 11; NLI, GO MS 193, pp 37, 40.


RCH, p. 208, §150 (=CIRCLE, PR 2 Hen. V, §161).


{1} RCH indicates that much of the item was illegible in 1828. It is clear from the transcript given in CPI that the damage was considerable. The grant is, however, sufficiently formulaic to allow the text to be reconstructed.
2CPI erroneously gives the date as 26 Jan. 1374.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.