Patent Roll 4 Richard II

20 Jul. 1380
Carrickfergus

INSPEXIMUS of the following letters patent under the g.s. used in Ire. by Edward III, late K. of Eng., viz. [1] letters patent dated at Dublin, 5 March [1373] 47 Edw. III,1 inspecting and confirming [2] letters patent attested by Lionel, e. Ulster, the K.’s son and his Lt in Ire., dated 22 March [1361] 36 Edw. III.2

[1] 'INSPEXIMUS of the following letters patent:

[2] "To the mayor and bailiffs and worthy men of the town of Drogheda on the side of Uriel, greetings.

By letters patent dated 7 Jan. [1356], the K. granted the following customs both to the mayor [etc.] of Drogheda on the side of Uriel and also to the seneschal and bailiffs of Drogheda on the side of Meath in aid of their town—which had been impoverished both by the great and horrible pestilence and because of merchandise of the burgesses accidentally lost at sea—for the paving of that town and its enclosure with a stone wall, and also for the repair of the towers of the quays [Kayarum] and the bridge of that town, to be levied on all articles for sale coming to that town by sea or by land, from 20 June [1356] next, and for the following 6 years, viz:

from each pound of all articles for sale, ½d;
from each pound of saffron for sale, 1d;
from each pound of pepper for sale, ¼d;
from each pound of Galyngale for sale, ½d;
from each pound of cloves [Clowys] for sale, 1d;
from each pound of pound of mace, ginger and grain of Paris [Gremdeparys] for sale, ½ d;
from all other kinds kinds of spices worth 12d for sale, ¼d;
for one hundred pounds of wax, 4d;
for one hundred pounds of almonds and rice for sale, 2d;
from each frail of figs and raisins for sale, ½d;
for one hundred pounds of Alyme for sale 2d;
for one hundred pounds of leek seeds for sale 2d;
for twelve pounds of onion seeds for sale 1d;
from each pound of silk for sale, 2d;
from each muslin cap for sale, 1d;
from 100 ells of canvas for sale, 2d;
from each Bolt de Elyesham for sale, ½ d;
from each piece of muslin [card’] for sale, 1d;
from each blanket [gallon’] or other coverlet for sale, ½d;
for 12 felt hats for sale, ½ d;
from each pecia de leges for sale, 1d;
from each piece of whole English cloth for sale, 4d;
from 12 ells of English cloths for sale, 2d;
from each piece of Irish cloth for sale containing twelve yards, 1d;
from each piece of Irish linen for sale, containing twelve ells, ½d;
from each hundred-weight of pieces of iron for sale, 2d;
from each band of pieces of iron for sale, 1d;
from each seme de slabbes for sale, 1d;
from each hundred stone of Spanish iron, 4d;
from each linch of tin for sale, 1d;
from each fotmel of lead for sale, ½d;
from 100 pounds of scrof’ for sale, 1d;
from all kinds of avoirdupois worth 12d for sale, ¼d;
from each thousand nails [clavorum & Speykynges] for sale, 1d;
for 12 plough-shares for sale, 1d;
from each frail of batry [kitchenware] for sale, 4d;
from each large cooking pot for sale, 1d;
from each cella worth 5s for sale, ½ d;
from each tun of wine or sale 4d;
from each pipe of wine or sale 2d;
from each crannock of ordinary malt and first-grade malt for sale, 1d;
from each crannock of wheat-corn for sale, 1d;
from each load of wheat for sale, ½ d;
from each tun of butter for sale 4d;
from each sum of butter for sale, 1d;
from each last of butter for sale, 1d;
from each stone of tallow for sale,½ d;
from each tun of herrings for sale, 4d;
for each mease of fish for sale, ½d;
for each crannock of salt for sale, 1d;
for each crannock of barley, beans and peas for sale, 1d;
from each crannock of flour of oats and of other types of grain, for sale, 1d;
from cheese and butter worth 12d for sale ¼d;
from each sack of wool for sale, 4d;
from each stone of wool for sale, 1d;
from each hide tanned, fresh or salted for sale, ¼ d;
from all kinds of hides worth 12d for sale, ¼ d;
from each hundred-weight of woolfells for sale, ½ d;
from each hundred-weight of skins of Walsellis for sale, 2d;
from each hide of lambs for sale, 1d;
from each hundred-weight of rabbit-skins for sale, 1d;
and from all other kinds of hides worth 12d for sale, ¼d;
from each horse worth 40d or more for sale, 2d;
from each draught-horse, bull, ox or cow for sale, 1d;
from each calf for sale, ¼ d;
from each pig, sheep or goat for sale, ¼ d;
from each horse-load of fishes for sale, ½ d;
from each hundred of dried fishes for sale, 1d;
from each salmon for sale, ¼ d;
from each hundred merlin eels for sale, 1d;
and from all kinds of timber and also from bigs, carriages, carts and boards worth 2s for sale, ½d;
and from all kinds of merchandise worth 2s for sale of which mention has not been made here, ½d.

At the end of the term of six years these customs were to cease and be removed entirely.

On account of the faith that the seneschal [etc.] of Drogheda on the side of Meath and also the mayor [etc.] of Drogheda on the side of Uriel bore and held towards the K., and also for a fine of 40s made by them both in the K.’s chancery of Ire., the K. exonerated them from rendering any account of those customs at his Ex. of Dublin, such that the money derived from those customs should be expended faithfully on the enclosure and paving [of the town], and the repair of the towers of its quays and its bridge, and not otherwise. And that at the end of the said term, an account for the same should be rendered by the said seneschal [etc.] and mayor [etc.] before two law-worthy burgesses of the said town to be chosen by them.

Considering the premises and wishing to show them more abundant grace, LICENCE to the mayor and bailiffs and worthy men of Drogheda on the side of Uriel to take the said customs from the day of the making of these presents for a term of 20 years, rendering an account for the same as said before. And at the end of that term those customs are to cease and be removed entirely.

The K.'s son, Lionel, e. Ulster, Lt in Ire., at Dublin, 22 March [1361] 36 Edw. III."

ACCEPTANCE, RATIFICATION, APPROVAL, GRANT and CONFIRMATION of the K.’s previous charter [dated 22 March 1361] to the mayor, seneschal, bailiffs and burgesses of the town of Drogheda on both sides of the water and all its contents for remainder of the previous term of 20 years in aid of the paving of that town and its enclosure with a stone wall […]. The K. also exonerates them from rendering an account of moneys derived from those customs at his Ex. of Ire., always providing that at the end of that term an account is rendered before two law-worthy burgesses elected by them. And at the end of that term those customs are to cease and be removed entirely.

Robert Ashton, Jcr, at Dublin, 5 March [1373] 47 Edw. III.’

ACCEPTANCE, RATIFICATION, APPROVAL and CONFIRMATION of those letters patent [dated 5 March 1373] for the remainder of that term of 20 years and then for a further term of 9 years.

Attested: 
Edmund Mortimer, e. March, Lt
C: 

CPI, p. 78.

N: 

CPI, p. 82 (=CIRCLE, PR 9 Ric. II, §250: an inspeximus dated at Dublin, 10 Oct. 1385).

Footnotes: 

1 CIRCLE, PR 47 Edw. III, §3.
2 CIRCLE, PR 36 Edw. III, §6.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.