Patent Roll 22 Henry VI

2 Aug. 1444

INSPEXIMUS of a certain enrolment in the rolls of the K.’s chancery of Ire. in these words, viz.:

‘MEMORANDUM that on 26 June [1444] 22 Hen. VI, in the K.’s council-house of the Friars Minor of Drogheda, the noble and powerful Sir James Butler, e. Ormond, Lt of Ire., made a declaration before the K.’s council and the lords spiritual and temporal; and the knights, esquires and peers of cos. Dublin and Kildare, the liberty and crosslands of Meath, and county Louth; as well as all the proctors of the cities, including the mayor and bailiffs of the city of Dublin and the burgesses [of the town] of Drogheda.

The names of the archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors and the proctors of the said counties and liberty follow here, viz.:
John [Mey], abp Armagh, primate of Ire.;
the proctor of Richard [Talbot], abp Dublin;
the prior of the cathedral church of Holy Trinity, Dublin;
the dean of the cathedral church of St Patrick, Dublin;
the archdeacon of Dublin;
the bishop of Meath;
the bishop of Kildare;
the abbot of the house of St Thomas the Martyr near Dublin;
the abbot of the house of the Blessed Mary near Dublin;
the abbot of the house of the Blessed Mary of Baltinglass;
the abbot of the house of the Blessed Mary of Trim;
the abbot of the house of the Blessed Mary of Navan;
the abbot of Kells;
the abbot of Knock;
the abbot of Duleek;
the prior of Conale;
the prior of Louth;
the prior of St John outside the New Gate of Dublin;
the prior of All Saints near Dublin;
the prior of St Wolfran’s;
the prior of St Peter’s of New Town near Trim
the prior of Foure;
the prior of Mullingar;
the prior of St John’s of Trim;
the prior of St John’s of Kells;
the prior of St Peter’s of Ardee;
the prior of St Leonard’s of Dundalk;
the prior of Tristernagh;
the prior of Duleek;
the prior of Holm Patrick;
the prior of Colp;
the archdeacon of Kells;
the archdeacon of Meath;
and the archdeacon of Kildare.

The names of the barons, knights, esquires, gentlemen, peers, mayors, sovereigns, provosts, and bailiffs of counties, liberty and crosslands [of Meath], city [of Dublin] and towns, follow here, viz.:

Christopher Fleming kt, baron of Slane;
Richard Nugent kt, baron of Delvin;
Nicholas Hussey, baron of Galtrim;
Thomas Nangle, baron of Navan;
[...], baron of [...]; Richard fitz Eustace kt; John Bellewe senior, kt; John Bellew junior, kt; [...] kt; Richard Talbot kt; James Alleyn kt; Richard Baath kt; Nicholas Taafe kt; [...] kt; William Welles; Nicholas Bernewalle; Thomas Plunket; Robert Plunket; Edward Plunket; [...]; William Dillon; John Stantoun; John Delahyde; John Kerdyfe; Bartholomew Baath; Nicholas Holywode; [... … ...]; Robert [...]; Nicholas White; Robert Urielle; John Scurlaghe; [...]; John Welles; [...]; [...] Leyius; Richard Tuite; James Cruys; William Bernevalle; [...]; Walter Goldyne; Thomas Veldoun; Patrick Netterville; Christopher Bryte; Richard [...]; William Preston; [...] Preston; John White; Christopher Wellesley; Robert Flatesberry; Richard Barby [...]; [...]; John Gernoune; Thomas Babe; Thomas Chamberleyne; [...]; William Chamberleyne; [...]; John Clinton; Thomas White; William Whotowne; Simon Lyntoune;
Henry Doongle; Walter [...]; [...] Coulie; Roger Gernoune; John More; Richard Verdon; John Harry; Robert Clinton; Thomas Wodeforde; [...]; John fitz Robert; Philip Bellew; Richard Willet; John Hodsone; John Brayne; [...]; John Bateman; David Rowe; William Preston; John Duffe; Peter Palmer; Richard Palmer; Robert Sherman; Roger Warnelle; William Symcoke;
Richard Brys; John Whitacre; William Wallyse; John Tailour; James Dokerey; the sovereign of Kells; the provost the town of Athboy; the provost the town of Navan; the provost the town of Trim; and the provost the town of Naas.

The Lt declared that for the past three years and more he had stood continually in the office of the K.’s chief governor of Ire. [principalis domini nostri Regis in terra sua predicta], viz. for one year as deputy of Lord Welles, then K.’s Lt of Ire., and afterwards for two years and more as the K.’s Lt in that land. And furthermore the earl declared that the K. had instructed him by letters and writ of p.s., and also by a credence delivered verbally by one Robert Manfelde esq., usher of the K.’s chamber (as he asserted)—who was then present in that council—to appear before the K. in Eng. with all haste, and ceasing all excuse.

Therefore the earl asked all the said lords spiritual and temporal, knights, esquires and peers, and also citizens and burgesses to declare before the said Robert if the earl, during his tenure as chief governor, had inflicted any extortion upon any liege of the land of Ire. in persons, goods, chattels lands or tenements; and if that earl was necessary for the liege people of that land. The earl also asked them declare in what manner the Lt labours and laboured for those three years and more in the K.’s service, and how he had expended all payments received from the K. for the said custody and if he had expended his own goods beyond the K.’s wages and subsidies granted to him by the commons of that land by assent of the lords spiritual and temporal. And also the said Lt declared that the K. had sent for him to come to his presence, and that the Lt was ready and willing to obey that command and that he intended to proceed to the K.’s presence with all haste. Having declared these things, the Lt asked the lords spiritual and temporal, and the gentlemen, citizens and burgesses to state before the K.’s council and the said Robert [Manfeld] their opinion of the premises concerning the Lt’s person, his rule and his passage [to Eng.].

The Lords, gentlemen and citizens and burgesses sought permission from the Lt to discuss the premises apart, and that they would return to state their opinion before the council and the said Robert. After an interval of some time, they re-entered the council chamber, and gave answer to each of the points through James Alleyne kt, their speaker [prolocutor] elected by their common assent.

[1] To the first article, James Alleyne said that they say that there was no one there who could complain in any way of that Lt, but they were wholly and entirely grateful for his good and gracious rule and his labourious defence of the said land, and that he was very much necessary for that land.

[2] And to the second article they said that the said Lt had sustained great and continual labours for the custody of that land in his own person during the time he held that office, and further he had expended a great deal from his own goods beyond the all the wages he received from the K. and all the subsidies granted to him by the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons of the said land, to the K.’s honour and defence of that land.

[3] And to the third article, they declared that it was not their intention by their protest to advise or request the Lt to stay, contrary to the K.’s order, although the land would be in peril in his absence. But they pleaded that Richard Wogan, C. of Ire., and brother Hugh Mideltoune, turcopolier of Rhodes, and the said Robert Manfelde esq. or any of them, to proceed to the K.’s presence as swiftly as possible so that they might declare to the K. the urgent necessity on account of the great confederacies of Irish enemies and English rebels for the destruction of the K.’s lieges, that the Lt should remain in Ire. until after Michaelmas next coming, in order that the liege people might gather the grain of the year, and safely bestow in their barns to their great comfort and the confusion of the K.’s Irish enemies. And, moreover, that the said C., turcopolier and Robert should diligently labour with the K. for the furthering and hastening of the [return of] the Lt to Ire., and the payment of all arrears of wages being paid to him, and with a good hope of their punctual payment for the future.

Having declared these things, the same James Alleyne, in the name of the lords, peers and other aforenamed persons, he pleaded to the Lt to cause the premises to enacted. And the Lt, at their request, ordered all the premises to be enacted to remain of record in the rolls of chancery.’

EXEMPLIFICATION of the tenor of these presents.


PKCI, pp 305–11.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.