Patent Roll 2 Henry V

9 Mar. 1415

INSPEXIMUS of various charters, viz.:

[1] 'CHARTER of Henry II by which he granted to Hugh de Lacy,1 for his service, the land of Meath for the service of 50 knights, to be held to him and his heirs of the K. just as Murcard' Humelachlin2 best held it, or others before him or afterwards. And in addition the K. gave him all fees which he has or shall acquire around Dublin, while he is the K.'s bailiff, doing service to the K. at the city of Dublin. He and his heirs are to have that land and hold all liberties and free customs which the K. had or has there for the aforementioned service, of the K. and his heirs, well and peacably, freely and quietly, in wood and plain, meadow and pasture, waters and mills, vivaries and ponds, fishings and huntings, ways and paths, and sea-ports, and in all other places and things pertaining to the same, with all other liberties which the K. has there and can give to him.

Witnesses:3 earl Richard s. Vislab'; William de Braose; William de Albin'; Reginald de Cortenai; Hugh de Gundevilla; William fitz Aldelmi dapifer; Hugh de Cressi, William de Stotevilla; Ralph de Haia; Reginald de Pavilli; Ralph de Verdun; William de Gerpu' Villa, Robert de Riulli.

At Wexford.'

[2] ‘Letters patent of Edward [III], the late K., given at York, 23 Aug. 1 Edw. [II] and exemplified on 18 Oct. in the same year,4 by which Edward II, for service, gave to Roger Mortimer and Joan his wife the liberty of Trim, which they held as of the inheritance of Joan and which Edward [I], the late K., his father, had recovered against them by writ of quo warranto, while they were in prison in Eng.; to have forever.’
[3] ‘Charter of Edward [III], the late K., given at Woodstock, 25 April [1330] 4 Edw. III,5 which recites the letters of Henry [II] as above, and how Hugh and his heirs successively, by virtue of that gift, had within the said land all manner of jurisdiction and cognizance of all pleas, and a chancery and Ex. and all things pertaining to those officers and their own seals [etc.]; and how afterwards that land, and also the said liberty, was divided between John Verdon and Margery his wife, cousin and one of the heirs of Walter de Lacy, son and heir of Hugh; and Geoffrey Geneville and Matilda his wife, cousin and the other heir of the said Walter. And the castle of Lokseuedy with a moiety of the inheritance were assigned to be in the purparty of Margery, and the castle of Trim with the other moiety were assigned to be in the purparty of Matilda. And both the said John and Margery in their purparty, and Geoffrey and Matilda in their purparty, separately had and used the said liberty, until the purparty of the said John and Margery came into the hand of King Edward [I] by forfeiture of Theobald Verdon, son and heir of the said John and Margery. And now Roger Mortimer, e. March, and Joan his wife― who used to hold the castle of Trim with other lands [etc.] assigned in that purparty as the right and inheritance of Joan, and used to have and exercise the said liberty in that purparty―the plead to the K. by petition that he might wish to grant them the liberty which has thus come into the K.’s hand because of the forfeiture of the said Theobald [etc.]. GRANT to them [Roger Mortimer and Joan his wife] that they might have and exercise forever at the castle of Trim all manner of jurisdiction and cognizance of all pleas, both of arson, treasure trove, rape and forestall, and others whatsoever arising, and also have a chancery, exchequer and all other things pertaining to those offices, and also their own seals deputed to those offices, as fully and wholly as the said John and Margery or anyone before them was accustomed to have and exercise them before the liberties thus came into the K.’s hand.’

And furthermore Edmund Mortimer, the present [fifth] earl of March and Ulster [etc.], begs the present K. to confirm his charters, royal franchises [etc.]. The earl pleads that he and his ancestors, as lords of Trim, had within that lordship and land of Meath various franchises and liberties by the charters and letters of Henry III and Edward I, and that by virtue of the same they had and used their regalian court at Trim, and had all manner of cognizance [of pleas], jurisdictions and liberties, royal franchises, customs and constitutions in that lordship and land. RATIFICATION and CONFIRMATION of those charters and letters and all their contents, and also of all manner of cognizances, jurisdictions, liberties, royal franchises, royal suits, pleas, perquisites, and customs and constitutions, used by the said earl and his said ancestors, and also their misters, both officers of fee and any others; to have and to hold forever, in the same manner as the present earl, Roger his father, Edmund his grandfather, or any other of his ancestors, ever had them; with proviso [cum clausula, licet] that [etc.].




1 An edition of the original charter is printed in Orpen, Normans, i, 286 (new ed., pp 105–6), based on Reg. Gormanston, p. 177, with a witness list from BL, Hargrave 313, f. 44d.
2Sic in RCH.
3 The surnames are reproduced here as the are printed in RCH: the spellings may indicate errors in transcription by the fifteenth-century chancery clerks. The name of the first witness should be 'comite Ricardo filio Gilberti', i.e. Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (=Strongbow).
4CPR 1327–30, p. 159 (where the place-date is given as Nottingham, 23 Aug. 1327); CPR 1327–30, p. 185.
5CChR 1327–41, pp 176–7.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.