Patent Roll 2 Henry IV

24 Apr. 1401

EXEMPLIFICATION of five charters from the time of John, lord of Ire. and K. of Eng. [1185–1207]:1

[1] 'John, count of Mortain and lord of Ire., to all his men and friends, French, English and Irish, greetings. Know that I have granted and confirmed to Peter Pipard all the land that Hubert, his brother, gave of Peter's land to the same, viz. of his conquest in Uriel, namely 2½ cantreds, viz. 'deferrors' [Ferrard], with the castle of Ardee and 4 burgages in Drogheda, 1 boat for fishing on the Buing [Boyne], 4 burgages in Carlingford and these 4 burgages with the liberty of fishing and the lord's boats belonging to the said Peter, and the half cantred of Muderne (Mudhorna, Mourne) nearer to the water, one cantred of Ethir and a half cantred of Clochkerin [or Clochkerm] and one cantred of Clonoys, to have and to hold of me and my heirs to Peter and his heirs by service of ten knights. Wherefore I wish and firmly command that Peter and his heirs after him shall have and hold the said lands freely and quietly [etc.], in wood and plain, meadows and pastures, ways and paths, moors and marshes, fishings and warrens, mills and ponds, boroughs and markets, advowsons of churches, castles, toll and theam, infangenteof, judgement of water, iron and furii, wreck, and all liberties and free customs, except the pleas of the crown.

Witnesses: William Marshal, Roger de Plan, Theobald Walter, Philip de Wygorne, Roger Tyrell, Richard his brother, Robert le Poher, William le Poher, Simon de Pikard, Helias de Linkin, Geoffrey Costentein, Reginald Poher and many others.' [(?)1185]

[2] 'Hugh de Lacy, e. Ulster, to all [etc.], greetings. Know that we have given and granted to Roger Pipard for his homage and service in Ulster one cantred of land, viz. Duffrian with all its appurtenances saving to us all rabbit-warrens [cunigariis]. To have and to hold of us and our heirs by hereditary right by service of five knights. Wherefore, we will and command that he and his heirs have the said cantred, except rabbit-warrens, freely and quietly [etc.], with churches and chapels, in wood and plain [etc.] and all liberties belonging to free land, saving to us the pleas belonging to our sword.

Witnesses: Walter de Lascy, Robert de Lascy, William de Lascy, Richard del Tuit, William Parvus, Henry de Astitlee, Walter de Logan, Richard fist [fitz] Robert, Reginald Haket and William the clerk.
Given by our own hand at Radbegan on 13 Jan. in the second year of our earldom [13 Jan. 1207].'

[3] 'John, K. of Eng. and lord of Ire., to all archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, justiciars, constables, bailiffs and ministers, French, English and Irish of the land of Ire., greeting. Know that we have granted and given to Hubert Walter, then dean of York, for his homage and service all my town of Luske with all its appurtenances in fee and heritage, to have and to hold of me and my heirs to him and his heirs, well and in peace, freely, quietly [etc.], in churches, sanctuaries, chapels, woods, plain [etc.], with Sach and Soch, Thol, Them, Infangentheof, judgement of water and iron, and pit and gallows [fosso et furcis] and duel, and all other free customs pertaining to the same land, save pleas and law-suits which belong to the royal crown, which I have retained to myself.

Witnesses: Lann [recte Ranulf] de Glanuill, Bertram de Verdon, Gilbert Pipard, Roger de Plan', Reginald de Panill', William de Mieleres, Reginald de Wassamuill', John Marescalc, my steward [dapifer], Baldwin de Brach, Fulc de Cantelo and many others, at Chem.' [No date.]

[4] 'John, lord of Ire. and count of Mortain, to all his men and friends, French, English and Irish, greetings. Know that we have given and granted to Peter Pippard for his homage and service three cantreds of the land of Uhegeni for the nearer land of Uriel [per propinquiores terre de Uriel], to have and to hold to him and his heirs of me and my heirs by service of twelve knights. Wherefore, I will and command that he and his heirs have and hold the said cantreds well and freely in wood and plain [etc.], in Thol and Them and Sohc and Infangentheoff, judgement of water and iron [etc.] with all free customs and liberties.

Witnesses: Stephen Ridell, my C., William de Wenn', Reginald de Wassemull, Hamo de Valon, David Walu, Engelram de Pratell', Fulson' de Captell', master Benedict, master Peter, canon of Betilber'. Given on 25 Jan. in the fourth year of K. Richard [25 Jan. 1193] at Portemue.'

[5] 'Nicholas de Verdon to all [etc.], greetings. Know that I have given and granted to Theobald Walter, butler of Ire., for his homage and service and to his heirs 20 knights' fees in my land of Honectath in the south part of Ardmacha with all its appurtenances, to have and to hold of me and my heirs to him and his heirs, freely [etc.] in woods and ways [etc.] in castles, fortresses, advowsons of churches and chapels, with tol and tem [etc.] and all liberties; doing to me and my heirs the service of four knights for all service and exaction.

Witnesses: Sir Robert de Vanys, Sir William Pipart, Sir Simon de Ouriel, Sir Robert de Hortishorne, Sir Richard de Samlusbery, Sir John de Heuerous, Sir Philip s. of Tankart, Sir Robert Onymyn, and many others.'

EXEMPLIFICATION of these charters at the request of James Butler, e. Ormond.2

John Stanley kt, Lt of Ire.

NLI, D 971.


COD, i, §863.


1 This translation is based on that by Curtis in COD.
2 The engrossed letters patent conclude with the following 'mention of service': Everdon (=Thomas Everdon). This is followed by a note: Extracta per Thomam de Everdon clericum.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.