Patent Roll 19 Richard II

18 Nov. 1395

In aid of the town of Galway (which is situated in the marches between the K.’s enemies and rebels, as well English as Irish, and by their daily attacks was very much impoverished) as well for the safety of his faithful people of the town, to be enclosed of a stone wall, as of the parts adjacent, and in aid of the paving of the town, GRANT to the provost, bailiffs and community of the town of Galway, and their successors, that they might, by themselves, or by those who should be by them thereto deputed, take for all articles for sale coming to the town, by land or by water, or passing from the same, the customs or tolls underwritten, for a term of 40 years, viz.:

from every pound of ginger, 1d;
from every pound of saffron, 2d;
from every pound of pepper, ¼d;
from every pound of galingale, 1d;
from every pound of cloves, 1d;
from every pound of grains of paradise, 1d;
from all other sorts of spices, of the valued of 12d, ¼d;
from 100 pounds of wax, 6d;
from 100 pounds of alum, 3d;
from each hide tanned, fresh (green) or salted, and put or to be put into juice in the town, and without, as far as the island that is called Eniskyreach, ½d;
from each pound of silk, 3d;
from each piece of legis, 4d;
from each piece of English cloth, 3d;
from each piece of Irish linen cloth, containing 12 yards, ½d;
from each hundred-weight of iron, 2d;
from each bundle of rods of iron, 1d;
from each sum of sables, 1d;
from 100 stone of Spanish iron, 4d;
from each fotmel of lead, ½d;
from each 100 pounds of scroff, 1d;
from all kinds of goods, of the value of 12d, ¼d;
from 1000 spike-nails, 1d;
from each frail of batry [kitchenware], 8d;
from each large kettle or large dish, 4d;
from each 100 of batry, 4d;
from each ton of wine, 6d;
from each pipe of wine, 3d;
from each crannock of common malt, 1d;
from each crannock of best malt, 2d;
from each crannock of wheat, 2d;
from each sum of corn, ½d;
from each sum of butter, 1d;
from each last of butter, 1d;
from each stone of tallow, ½d;
from each mease (500) of herrings, ½d;
from each crannock of salt; 1d;
from each crannock of barley, beans and peas, 1d;
from each crannock of oats and other corn, 1d;
from each stone of wool, 1d;
from each sack of wool, 4d; from each hide, fresh or salted, ½d;
from hides of shorlings, 1d;
from 100 woolfells, 1d;
from 100 lambskins, 2d;
from any skins valued at 12d, ¼d;
from each horse valued at 40s and more, 6d;
from each pack-horse, steer, bull, ox and cow, 1d;
from each calf, ¼d;
from each large hog, 1d;
from each sheep or goat, ½d;
from each small hog, ½d;
from 100 each 100 rabbit-skins, 2d;
from 100 wool-fells, 3d;
from 100 dried fish, ½d;
from each horse-load of fish, 2d;
from each salmon, ¼d;
from 1000 eels and merlings , 1d;
from every kind of timber, and also carts, small carts and boards valued at 4s, 1d;
from each falcon or hawk, 1d;
from each tercel or tercelet, ½d;
from each mill-quern, 1d;
from two hand querns, ¼d;
from 12 crannocks of coal, 1d;
from each stone of butter, hogs lard, tallow and cheese, ½d;
from each ton of honey, 8d;
from each pipe of salmon, 18d
from each hundred-weight of glass, 1d;
from each hundred-weight of scalphyn or other fish, salt, dry or hard, 1d;
from 2000 onions, 1d;
from 8 sheaves of garlic, ¼d;
from each new chest or box, and each 1000 dishes and wooden platters, ¼d;
from 100 pounds of pitch or rosin, ½d;
from each 100 gads of steel, ½d;
from every kind of ware of the value of 12d, of which no mention is above made, ¼;
from every kind of ware of the value of 6s and 8d, not above expressed, ½d;
and from every kind of the value of 13s and 4d, likewise not herein before contained, 1d;

ORDER to the provost, bailiffs and commonalty of the town of Galway that they should cause and order the customs and tolls, and every of them, from day to day, to be levied, collected and received and had in the town in the manner said. Provided always, that the monies arising therefrom should be faithfully expended on the murage and pavage of the town, and not otherwise; and they are to render their accounts before the T. of the lordship of Connacht and not at the Ex. of Ire.

Roger Mortimer, earl of March and Ulster, Lt

James Hardiman, History of the town and county of Galway from the earliest period to the present time (Dublin, 1820), appendix 3, pp vii–viii.


CPR Ire., Hen. VIII–Eliz., pp 196–7; CPR 1401–5, p. 86 (=an inspeximus dated at Westminster, 12 March 1401).

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.