Patent Roll 19 Henry VI

12 Aug. 1441

The K. has considered the good hospitality and assistance that the sovereign and commons of the town of Kilkenny, and his own liege men living there, as well as the said town, provide in support of the safety and defence of the faithful liege subjects of co. Kilkenny and others coming to the town, against the daily malice of the K.’s Irish enemies, of his special grace in aid of the fortifications of the town and for the repair and amendment of the walls and streets of the town, that are, as he understands, broken down and fallen in different places. GRANT and LICENCE to the sovereign and commons and their successors, by themselves or their deputies, to levy, collect and have for a term of 24 years the following customs from all articles for sale at the town or coming to the town for the purpose of sale, or passing elsewhere by the town for half a mile on every side, both in the crosslands and the liberty of the same, viz.:

from every crannock of any kind of grain, malt, flour and salt for sale, ½d;
from every crannock of woad for sale, 2d;
from every crannock of dyer’s cork and sumach for sale, 1d;
from every crannock of oakbark for sale, ¼d;
from 12 crannocks of any kind of coal for sale, 1d;
from 12 crannocks of lime for sale, ½d;
from every horse, mare, pony, ox or heifer for sale, 1d;
from every 10 goats or pigs for sale, 1d;
from 5 bacons for sale, ½d;
from 12 woollen fleeces for sale, ½d;
from every hide of horse, mare, pony, ox or heifer, fresh, salted or tanned for sale, ¼d;
from every 100 skins of lambs, goats, hares, foxes, cats and squirrels for sale, ½d;
from every 100 skins of all sheep, roe-deer, boars, bucks or doe for sale, 1d;
from every millstone for sale, 1d;
from 2 querns for sale, ¼d;
from every great woolpack for sale, 4d;
from every mease of herrings for sale, ¼d;
from 20 large fish for sale, ½d;
from every horse-load of fish saleable, 1d;
from every load of sea-fish for sale, ¼d;
from 100 large freshwater eels for sale, 1d;
from every salmon for sale, ¼d;
from every lamprey for sale, ¼d;
from every cask of wine and ashes for sale, 4d;
from every cask of honey for sale, 4d;
from every pack-load of honey for sale, 1d;
from every pack-load of ashes for sale, 1d;
from every pack-load of cloth for sale, 1d;
from every entire cloth of assize for sale, 1d;
from 20 ells of Irish cloth, both salewych' and worsted, for sale, ½d;
from 20 ells of English or overseas’ linen cloth for sale, ½d;
from 20 ells of canvas for sale, ¼d;
from 10 hats of felt for sale, ½d;
from every tapestry or blanket for sale, ¼d;
from every cloth of gold for sale, 1d;
from every silk cloth or kandlekine for sale, 1d;
from every cap of muslin for sale, ½d;
from every Irish frieze for sale, ¼d;
from every pack-load of linen cloths or other things for sale, ½d;
from every strip of iron for sale, ½d;
from 100 gads of steel for sale, ½d;
from 100 pounds of pitch and rosin for sale, ½d;
from every stone of tallow grease, butter and cheese for sale, ½d;
from 10 pounds of cygnenet seeds for sale, ½d;
from 100 pounds of leek seed for sale, 1d;
from 2000 onions for sale, ¼d;
from 8 sheaves of garlic for sale, ¼d;
from 100 small boards for sale, ¼d;
from 100 large boards for sale, 1d;
from every 1000 large shingles for sale, 1d;
from every 1000 small shingles for sale, ½d;
from every 1000 nails for sale, ½d;
from every 100 horse-shoes and cart-clouts for sale, ½d;
from every new chest and bow for sale, ¼d;
from every 1000 wooden dishes and plates for sale, ¼d;
from every dozen cordwain, horns and basin for sale, ½d;
also from every 100 brass and copper for sale, 2d;
from every 100 scallops and dried-fish for sale, 1d;
from 10 packs of hemp or flax for sale, 1d;
from 10 gallons of lamp oil for sale, ½d;
from 10 gallons of olive oil for human use for sale, 1d;
from every dozen items of batrie for sale, ½d;
from every 100 sailwede for sale, 1d;
from every 100 of coloured glass for sale, 1d;
from every 100 of white glass for sale, ½d;
from every 2s worth of all kinds of spice for sale, ½d;
from every 100 of goods sold by weight for sale, 1d;
from a dozen [pieces] English or imported cloth for sale, 1d;
and from all merchandise of the value of 2s whereof there is no mention made here, ¼d.

ORDER to take and have the said customs until the end of the said term but on the completion of that term the customs shall entirely cease. The money to be used on the murage and pontage of the said town and not otherwise. At the end of every year, an account is to be rendered to the bishop of Ossory, and not to the Ex.

James Butler, e. Ormond, deputy of Lionel, Lord Welles, Lt of Ire.

Bradley, Treasures of Kilkenny, p. 62.


CPR Ire., Hen. VIII–Eliz., p. 427 note.

End of Roll

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).


  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary





The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.


A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.


Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor


Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.


See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.


Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.


Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.


The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.


A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.


A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.


Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.


Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.


A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.


The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.


Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.


A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.