Close Roll 19 Edward IV

[No date.]

ENROLMENT, in English, of the K.'s mandate to Roland fitz Eustace kt, T., concerning the execution of his office, viz.:

'The Tresorer’s Duty.

Here folowyth the Kyng’s commaundements and plesure to be showed unto Sir Rouland Eustace, knyght, whom his Highnesse haith deputed to be Tresorer of his lande of Irland.

Furst, the said Sir Rouland shall well and trewly behave hym in the occupieng of his said office, and justely and righteuisly exercize it, as well betwixt the Kyng and his subjects, as betwixt the Kyng’s subjects.

Item, he shall not assent nore agre to the hurt, dammage, or disheretyng the Kyng of his lands, revenues, rights, regalie, or prerogatifs, but in all that in hym is he shall uphold, mayntene, encrese, and avaunce them.

Item, that the said Sir Rouland continuelly endeavour himself that the Kyng be yerely answered of all suche revenues and rights, as shall belong unto his higheness within his land of Irland, and that he do send unto the Kyng’s gode grace yerely a trewe and pleyn vewe therof, comprising the particulars and specialtees of the same.

Item, that the same Sir Rouland remitte and forget all malice, and evill will, that he haith borne and berith unto the Bishop of Mythe, Bermingham, the Justice, and all others the Kyng’s subjects, within þe said land: For the Kyng’s Highenesse haith commandet them in semblablle wise to do toward hym.

Also, the K. wol that he delivere his gret sele beying in his kepyng unto the said Bisshop of Mythe, whom he haith deputed and made his Chaunsellor of his said land of Irland.

Item, that the said Sir Rouland kepe th’ appointment by the Kyng taken betwix him, and Sir Roberte Eustace in thes articles1 folowyng, which comprised the Kyng’s comaundments and plesure to be executed and accomplished by his Juges and Barones of th’ Eschequer within his land of Ireland.

Furste, that thei and everich of theym duely and trewly behave theym, as well towards the Kyng’s Higheness, as towards his subjects, in executyng and doyng of their offices, and aftir ther cunyng and discrecione justely and indifferently ministre justice to all the Kynges subjects in those parties.

Item, that nether thei ne eny of theym assent nore agree to the hurtyng or endamagyng of any suche revenues, enheritances, prerogatifs, rights, or interests to the Kyng in eny wise belonging; but that thei and everich of theym endevoir theym to their power to the avauncing and encrecyng thereof.

Item, that thei and everith of theym employ theym as effectually as thei can, that all fynes, amercements, and all other issues and profites that shall or ought rightwisely to grow within the Kyng’s Courts, wher they have or shall have administracione of Justice, be trwely and duely cessed and ordered, and that therof a due comptes be made yerly in the Kyng’s Eschequer ther; soe that their fees, wages, and rewardes may be paiet and contented of the same as far as it shall stretche unto.

Item, in caas that eny variences grow amongst the Kyng’s subjects in thes parties, which God defend, wherby the Kyng or the comon wele of his land ther by eny liklyod shuld be hurted, that thei endevoir themselves to the best of ther power to appeyse thos variences, and that suche directione be takyn theruppon as shall best acorde to reson, and to the wele of the Kyng, and of his land of Ireland.'

T: 

Gilbert, Viceroys, pp 596–8.

C: 

RCH.

N: 

57th rep. DKPRI, p. 569.

Footnotes: 

1 'in thes articles': Morrissey's annotations record that on the original roll a 'fresh heading commences with these words' (57th rep. DKPRI, p. 569).

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.