Close Roll 19 Edward IV

[No date.]

ENROLMENT, in English, of the K.'s decision and mandate from two parliaments lately held at Naas and Drogheda respectively; also from another parliament next to be held.1

'In thes articles folowing been comprised the kyng’s will, detterminacione, commaundment and plesures upon the Parliaments holdyn late at the Naase and Drogheda; and upon the Parliament that shall be nowe next holdyn within his lande of Ireland.

Whereas have been gret variences of late in our said land of Irland upon two Parliaments ther last holdyn the onn at the Naase, the other at Drogheda, whother of theym shuld be of auctorite, we have therupon taken suche direction as folowith.

Furst, we considere, that in the said two Parliaments were communed and concludet prynciply two actes, the oon touchyng the grauntes of certayn subsidies far the wele and defence of our said land, the second concerned resumpcions as well of offices as of our revenue.

As touching the subsidies graunted in our Parliament holdyn at Drogheda, for as moche as we understand that it was granted, and also in gret part, as we ben enformed, leveed for the wele and defence abovesaid, we will that the same graunte, with all that thereto apperteyneth, be gode and effectuell, and also auctorised by the Parliament in our said land now next to be holdyn.

As touching the’ acts of resumcions in eather of the said Parliaments passed, which of parcialte and malice been and have been more hurtyng to our subjects ther, than to us or the wele of our said land profitable, we will that the same acts be maad void, and of none effect in the lawe; except the resumcion of offices, and of chancellorship and Tresererships made in the Parliament holdyn at Drogheda, the which we will that hit stand in his force and effect; consideryng that theruppon we have made the Bishop of Meth our Chanseler, and S{r} Rouland Eustace Knyght our Tresorer there; and we will that a general act of Resumpcion for’ the furst day of Kyng Herry the VI{th} be had and made in the next Parliament touching our Revenue, and that such Provisions be made upon the same by our Depute Lieutennant there accordyng to our plesure; which our plesure we have showed unto our Right Trusty and wellbeloved cosyn, th’ erle of Kyldare, whom we have ordered to be Depute Lieutennant, and to the Reverend Fader in God the Bisshop of Mythe, whom we have ordeyned, as is above said, to be our Chanselor.

As touching the Resumpcion of offices, forasmoche as the offices of Chanselor and other, in the Depute’s commysion named to us oonly reserved, we will that the offices of Chief Baron of the Ex., and the Maister of our Mint there bie resumed in this same Parliament, and our letters patents be mad theruppon under our gret seall thereto thes persons to whom we have made our grantes upon the same.

And as to other offices to us in the said commysion not referred [recte 'reserved'], we be contented that suche of theym be resumed, and they for the wele of us and our said land by our said Depute Lievetennant, so disposed as shall be thought by hym most expedient.

We will also that at thys Parliament be resumed th’ office of Seneschalce of the liberte ofMethe, wyth the fees wages and rewardes therfor by us or otherwye to any person graunted, and soo to remayne in our hands at our plesur. We will also that if any act have be made to the prejudice of us, and in derogacione of our crowne in restreyning of Tonnage and Pondage it be utterly revoked and adnulled, and in this Parliament the old graunt therof be renovelled and established, as that be best for our right wele and honor.

Item, the Kyng wylleth, that suche an act as heretofore haith ben made in the land there restreyning that noo man within that land shuld be called out of the said land by any precept or commaundment made under the Kyng’s grete seall, prive seall, or signet in Eng. be utterly revoked and adnulled.

Item, the Kyng willeth, that upon resumpcione of the Kyng’s revenues to be made in this Parliament, the towns of Dyvelyn and Drogheda be providet fore al suche grauntis as have ben made unto theym by the Kyng’s auctorite his Progenitors or Predecessours; so that they promisse to be redy to doo the Kyng service at suche tymes as by the Kyng’s Lievtennant or his Depute they shall be desyred.'

F: 

Rep. RCI 1811–15, plate 4, §1.

T: 

Gilbert, Viceroys, pp 592–3.

C: 

RCH.

N: 

57th rep. DKPRI, p. 569.

Footnotes: 

1 The text given here is reproduced (with superior letters placed in curly brackets) from the printed edition in Gilbert, Viceroys, who made a transcript of the original Irish close roll. Mr J. T. Morrissey, Assistant Keeper of the Public Records of Ireland, later collated Gilbert's published transcript with the original roll, and annotated the copy of Gilbert, Viceroys, possessed by the PROI. The original roll was destroyed in 1922, but the annotations were published in 57th rep. DKPRI, p. 569. These annotations are placed here in square brackets immediately afer the corresponding word from Gilbert's edition.

The following abbreviations are used within in the text of CIRCLE

  • abp = archbishop [of]
  • BMV = beate Marie Virginis [of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
  • C. = chancellor [plural: chancellors]
  • co. = county (i.e. medieval shire: lower case ‘c’) [plural. cos.]
  • dcd = deceased
  • e. = earl of
  • Edw. = Edward (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • Eng. = England
  • esq. = esquire [plural: esquires]
  • Ex. = exchequer
  • g.s. = great seal
  • Hen. = Henry
  • Ire. = Ireland
  • Jcr = justiciar [plural: justiciars]
  • JP = justice of the peace
  • K. = king
  • kt = knight
  • Lt = lieutenant
  • O.Carm. = Order of Carmelites
  • O.F.M. =  Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans)
  • O.P. = Order of Preachers (Dominicans)
  • Ric. = Richard (used when giving dates by regnal year)
  • s. = son
  • sen. = seneschal of
  • T. = treasurer [plural: treasurers]
  • w. = wife

This glossary is by no means comprehensive. Readers may also wish to consult standard references books such as Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of local Irish History from the earliest times to c.1900 (Cork, 2004); P. G. Osborn, Osborn’s concise law dictionary, ed. Sheila Bone (London, 2001).

Abbreviations

  • AN = Anglo-Norman
  • Ir. = Irish
  • Lat. = Latin
  • ME = Middle English
  • OED = Oxford English Dictionary

 

Term

Explanation

advowson

The right of patronage or presentation to a church benefice.

allocate, writ of

A writ authorizing allowance to be made by the officers of the Ex. of a specified amount: often this amount is to be off-set against the debts owed to the K. by the beneficiary.

alterage

A form of affinity proscribed in late medieval Ireland between the Irish and the English, whereby a man stood sponsor for a child at baptism; (also) gossipred.

assize

Technical term for legal proceedings or various kinds. See mort d’ancestor, novel disseisin.

avener [Lat. avarius]

provider of oats, esp. for the household of the K. or his chief governor

avoirdupois

Miscellaneous merchandise sold by weight.

bonnaght [Ir. buannacht]

The billeting of mercenaries or servants.

cask

See tun.

certiorari, writ of

Letters close issued by the K. to his officers commanding them to supply information to him concerning a specified matter, normally by searching the records.

chattels

Property, goods, money: as opposed to real property (land).

dicker [Lat. dacra]

A measure of 10 hides.

dower

Portion (one third) of a deceased husband’s estate which the law allows to his widow for her life.

escheat

The reversion of land to the lord of the fee to the crown on failure of heirs of the owner or on his outlawry.

extent

A survey and valuation of property, esp. one made by royal inquisition.

falding [Ir. fallaing]

A kind of coarse woollen cloth produced in Ireland; the mantle or cloak made from the same.

fee-farm
 

A fixed annual rent payable to the K. by chartered boroughs.

fotmel [Lat. fotmellum]

A measure of lead.

engrossment

Technical term: the action of writing out, for instance patent letters and charters; (also) the documents thus written out.

enrolment

Technical term: the action of recording in the records of the K., esp. the registering of a deed, memorandum, recognizance; (also) the specific item or record thus enrolled.

hanaper

A repository for the keeping of money. The ‘clerk of the hanaper in chancery’ was the chancery official responsible for the receipt of fines for the issue, engrossment and ensealing of writs, patents and charters issued by the chancery.

herberger [Lat. herbergerius, hospitator]

One sent on before to purvey lodgings for an army, a royal train (OED).

galangal [AN galyngale]

The aromatic rhizome of certain Asian plants of the genera Alpinia and Kaempferia, of the ginger family, used in cookery and herbal medicine; (also) any of these plants (OED).

generosus [Lat.]

Term designating social status: translated as ‘gentleman’.

king's widow [Lat. vidua regis]

The widow of a tenant in chief: so called because whe was not allowed to marry a second time without royal licence.

knights’ fees

Units of assessment of estates in land. Originally a single knight’s fee was the amount of land for which the military service of one knight (=knight service) was required by the crown. ‘Fee’ derives from the Latin feudum, which in other contexts translated as ‘fief’. In practice the descent of landed estates meant that many knights’ fees came to be subdivided and, in the later Middle Ages, personal service was frequently commuted to money payments (=scutage).

liberate, writ of

A chancery writ issued to the treasurer and chamberlains of the Ex. authorizing them to make payment of a specified amount, often the annual fees, wages and rewards of the K.’s officers.

linch [Lat. lincia]

A measure of tin.

livery

The delivery of seisin, or possession, of an estate hitherto held in the K.’s hand, for instance when a minor reaches the age of majority.

mainprize

Legal term: the action of undertaking to stand surety (=‘mainpernor’) for another person; the action of making oneself legally responsible for the fulfilment of a contract or undertaking by another person (OED).

mass [Lat. messa]

A standard measure of metal.

messuage

A portion of land occupied, or intended to be occupied, as the site for a dwelling house; (also) a dwelling house together with outbuildings and the adjacent land assigned to its use (OED).

mort d’ancestor, assize of [Lat. assisa mortis antecessoris]

A legal process to recover land of which the plaintiff’s ancestor (father, mother, uncle, aunt, brother sister, nephew or niece) died seised (=in possession), possession of which was since taken by another person.

nolumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula nolumus]

A standard clause inserted especially in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time.

novel disseisin, assize of [Lat. assisa nove disseisine]

A legal process to recover land from which the plaintiff claims to have been dispossessed (=disseised).

pensa See wey.
piece [L. pecia] A standard quantity of merchandise.
pendent seal Seal hanging from engrossed letters patent attached to a tongue or tag of parchment.
perpresture An illegal encroachment upon royal property.
plica A fold along the foot of engrossed letters patent and charters to create a double thickness of parchment, used for attaching the ‘great seal pendent’ to the letters. An incision was made in the plica and through which a tag of parchment was attached. A wax impression of a seal was then affixed to the tag.
protection An act of grace by the K., granted by chancery letters, by which the recipient is to be free from suits at law for a specified term; granted especially to persons crossing overseas or otherwise out of reach of the courts in the K.’s service.
quare impedit, writ of An action brought to recover the advowson of a benefice, brought by the patron against the bishop or other person hindering the presentation.
scutage The commutation of personal military service to the crown for a money payment. Normally called ‘royal service’ in Ireland.
seisin Formal legal possession of land.
sendal [Lat. cendallum; ME cendal] A thin rich silken material (OED).
stallage [Lat. stallagium, estallagium] Payment for a market stall.
tun [Latdolium] A large cask or barrel, esp. of wine.
valettus A term designating social status: translated ‘yeoman’.
Vidua Regis [Lat.] See King's widow.
volumus, clause of [Lat. cum clausula volumus] A standard clause inserted esp. in letters of protection by which pleas and suits are delayed for a specified period of time. In full the clause runs: volumus quod interim sit quietus de omnibus placitis et querelis (=we wish that meanwhile he be quit of all pleas and plaints).
waif A piece of property which is found ownerless and which, if unclaimed within a fixed period after due notice given, falls to the lord.
waivery [AN weiverie] The technical term for proceedings of outlawry in the case of women.
wey [Lat. pensa, peisa, pisa] A standard of dry-goods weight.
worsted [ME wyrstede] A woollen fabric or stuff made from well-twisted yarn spun of long-staple wool combed to lay the fibres parallel (OED).
writ [Lat. brevis] Letters close containing commands by the K. to certain specified persons, esp. royal officers. Returnable writs, which were not normally enrolled in the chancery rolls, were to be returned by the officer to chancery with details of the actions taken by the officer in response to the contents. See also allocate, certiorari, liberate.